The decision to moonlight: does second job holding by the self-employed and employed differ?

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


External organisations

  • Lancaster University
  • COLA; The University of Texas at El Paso; El Paso TX USA
  • Nottingham Trent University
  • University of Cambridge
  • COLA; The University of Texas at El Paso; El Paso TX USA


This article considers drivers of second job holding among the self-employed in comparison with the employed. Econometric analysis of panel data explores whether the self-employed are more or less likely to take on a second job when already running their own business than their employed counterparts. The findings contribute to the literature through identification of a need-based variable—difficulty in meeting housing costs—as a key driver of movements from self-employment to hybrid entrepreneurship. Findings, further, identify different patterns of second job holding by gender, particularly among self-employed individuals.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-299
JournalIndustrial Relations Journal
Issue number3
Early online date26 Apr 2016
Publication statusPublished - 27 May 2016