The Controlling Interpersonal Style in a Coaching Context: Development and Initial Validation of a Psychometric Scale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Standard

The Controlling Interpersonal Style in a Coaching Context: Development and Initial Validation of a Psychometric Scale. / Bartholomew, Kimberley; Ntoumanis, Nikolaos; Thogersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie.

In: Journal of sport & exercise psychology, Vol. 32, No. 2, 01.04.2010, p. 193-216.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

APA

Vancouver

Author

Bibtex

@article{57e5bb41dab0436391677f61a42ee33a,
title = "The Controlling Interpersonal Style in a Coaching Context: Development and Initial Validation of a Psychometric Scale",
abstract = "This article outlines the development and initial validation of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale (CCBS), a multidimensional self-report measure designed to assess sports coaches{\textquoteright} controlling interpersonal style from the perspective of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002). Study 1 generated a pool of items, based on past literature and feedback from coaches, athletes, and academic experts. The factorial structure of the questionnaire was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across Studies 2 and 3. The final CCBS model in Study 3 comprised 4 factors (controlling use of rewards,conditional regard,intimidation, and excessive personal control) and was cross-validated using a third independent sample in Study 4. The scale demonstrated good content and factorial validity, as well as internal consistency and invariance across gender and sport type. Suggestions for its use in research pertaining to the darker side of coaching and sport participation are discussed.",
keywords = "scale development, personal control, intimidation, rewards, negative conditional regard, self-determination theory",
author = "Kimberley Bartholomew and Nikolaos Ntoumanis and Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani",
year = "2010",
month = apr,
day = "1",
language = "English",
volume = "32",
pages = "193--216",
journal = "Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology",
issn = "0895-2779",
publisher = "Human Kinetics",
number = "2",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Controlling Interpersonal Style in a Coaching Context: Development and Initial Validation of a Psychometric Scale

AU - Bartholomew, Kimberley

AU - Ntoumanis, Nikolaos

AU - Thogersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

PY - 2010/4/1

Y1 - 2010/4/1

N2 - This article outlines the development and initial validation of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale (CCBS), a multidimensional self-report measure designed to assess sports coaches’ controlling interpersonal style from the perspective of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002). Study 1 generated a pool of items, based on past literature and feedback from coaches, athletes, and academic experts. The factorial structure of the questionnaire was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across Studies 2 and 3. The final CCBS model in Study 3 comprised 4 factors (controlling use of rewards,conditional regard,intimidation, and excessive personal control) and was cross-validated using a third independent sample in Study 4. The scale demonstrated good content and factorial validity, as well as internal consistency and invariance across gender and sport type. Suggestions for its use in research pertaining to the darker side of coaching and sport participation are discussed.

AB - This article outlines the development and initial validation of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale (CCBS), a multidimensional self-report measure designed to assess sports coaches’ controlling interpersonal style from the perspective of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002). Study 1 generated a pool of items, based on past literature and feedback from coaches, athletes, and academic experts. The factorial structure of the questionnaire was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across Studies 2 and 3. The final CCBS model in Study 3 comprised 4 factors (controlling use of rewards,conditional regard,intimidation, and excessive personal control) and was cross-validated using a third independent sample in Study 4. The scale demonstrated good content and factorial validity, as well as internal consistency and invariance across gender and sport type. Suggestions for its use in research pertaining to the darker side of coaching and sport participation are discussed.

KW - scale development

KW - personal control

KW - intimidation

KW - rewards

KW - negative conditional regard

KW - self-determination theory

M3 - Article

C2 - 20479478

VL - 32

SP - 193

EP - 216

JO - Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

JF - Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

SN - 0895-2779

IS - 2

ER -