The application of an enhanced Brute Force algorithm to minimise energy costs and train delays for differing railway train control systems

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This paper demonstrates an enhanced Brute Force algorithm application for optimising the driving speed curve by trading off reductions in energy usage against increases in delay penalty. A simulator is used to compare the train operation performance with different train control system configurations when implemented on a section of high-speed line operating with two trains, including differences in journey time and train energy consumption. Results are presented using six different train control system configurations combined with three different operating priorities. Analysis of the results shows that the operation performance can be improved by eliminating the interactions between trains using advanced control systems or optimal operating priorities. The algorithm is shown to achieve the objectives efficiently and accurately. Control system configurations with intermediate levels of complexity (e.g. European Train Control System Levels 2 and 1 with in-fill) when coupled with the optimisation process have been shown to have similar performance to the more advanced control system.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-168
Number of pages11
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2014


  • brute force, energy consumption, multi-train simulator, Optimal train control system, train delay

ASJC Scopus subject areas