Technical Note: The use of an interrupted-flow centrifugation method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
  • UNSW
  • Connected Waters Initiative Research Centre
  • School of Mining Engineering


We present an interrupted-flow centrifugation technique to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media. The method entails a minimum of three phases: centrifuge-induced flow, no flow and centrifuge-induced flow, which may be repeated several times in order to most effectively characterise multi-rate mass transfer behaviour. In addition, the method enables accurate simulation of relevant in situ total stress conditions during flow by selecting an appropriate centrifugal force. We demonstrate the utility of the technique for characterising the hydraulic properties of smectite-clay-dominated core samples. All core samples exhibited a non-Fickian tracer breakthrough (early tracer arrival), combined with a decrease in tracer concentration immediately after each period of interrupted flow. This is indicative of dual (or multi-)porosity behaviour, with solute migration predominately via advection during induced flow, and via molecular diffusion (between the preferential flow network(s) and the low hydraulic conductivity domain) during interrupted flow. Tracer breakthrough curves were simulated using a bespoke dual porosity model with excellent agreement between the data and model output (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was > 0.97 for all samples). In combination, interrupted-flow centrifuge experiments and dual porosity transport modelling are shown to be a powerful method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3991-4000
Number of pages10
JournalHydrology and Earth System Sciences
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sep 2015