Tailoring iridium luminescence and gold nanoparticle size for imaging of microvascular blood flow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Nicola J Rogers
  • David J Lewis
  • Gerald Zikeli
  • Nikolas J Hodges

External organisations

  • University of Birmingham


AIM: Imaging of blood flow in narrow channels and close to vessel walls is important in cardiovascular research for understanding pathogenesis. Our aim was to provide novel nanoprobes with visible emission and long lifetimes as trackers of flow.

MATERIALS & METHODS: Gold nanoparticles coated with an iridium complex were prepared. Luminescence imaging was used to monitor their flows in different hematocrit blood and in murine tissues.

RESULTS: The velocities are independent of hematocrit level and the nanoparticles entering blood circulation can be clearly detected in vessels in lungs, mesentery and the skeletal muscle.

CONCLUSION: The work introduces for the first time iridium-based yellow-green luminescence with nanoparticle size of 100 nm for visualizing and monitoring flows with much higher resolution than conventional alternatives.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2726-2740
Number of pages14
Issue number22
Early online date29 Sep 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • blood flow, gold nanoparticles , imaging , luminescence , metal probes