Systemic lupus erythematosus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Standard

Systemic lupus erythematosus. / Kaul, Arvind; Gordon, Caroline; Crow, Mary K; Touma, Zahi; Urowitz, Murray B; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Hughes, Graham.

In: Nature Reviews Disease Primers, Vol. 2, 16039, 16.06.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Kaul, A, Gordon, C, Crow, MK, Touma, Z, Urowitz, MB, van Vollenhoven, RF, Ruiz-Irastorza, G & Hughes, G 2016, 'Systemic lupus erythematosus', Nature Reviews Disease Primers, vol. 2, 16039. <https://www.nature.com/articles/nrdp201639#article-info>

APA

Kaul, A., Gordon, C., Crow, M. K., Touma, Z., Urowitz, M. B., van Vollenhoven, R. F., Ruiz-Irastorza, G., & Hughes, G. (2016). Systemic lupus erythematosus. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 2, [16039]. https://www.nature.com/articles/nrdp201639#article-info

Vancouver

Kaul A, Gordon C, Crow MK, Touma Z, Urowitz MB, van Vollenhoven RF et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2016 Jun 16;2. 16039.

Author

Kaul, Arvind ; Gordon, Caroline ; Crow, Mary K ; Touma, Zahi ; Urowitz, Murray B ; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F ; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo ; Hughes, Graham. / Systemic lupus erythematosus. In: Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2016 ; Vol. 2.

Bibtex

@article{07678e044813401fb62e92273b9a9301,
title = "Systemic lupus erythematosus",
abstract = "Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that can affect many organs, including the skin, joints, the central nervous system and the kidneys. Women of childbearing age and certain racial groups are typically predisposed to developing the condition. Rare, inherited, single-gene complement deficiencies are strongly associated with SLE, but the disease is inherited in a polygenic manner in most patients. Genetic interactions with environmental factors, particularly UV light exposure, Epstein–Barr virus infection and hormonal factors, might initiate the disease, resulting in immune dysregulation at the level of cytokines, T cells, B cells and macrophages. Diagnosis is primarily clinical and remains challenging because of the heterogeneity of SLE. Classification criteria have aided clinical trials, but, despite this, only one drug (that is, belimumab) has been approved for use in SLE in the past 60 years. The 10-year mortality has improved and toxic adverse effects of older medications such as cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids have been partially offset by newer drugs such as mycophenolate mofetil and glucocorticoid-sparing regimes. However, further improvements have been hampered by the adverse effects of renal and neuropsychiatric involvement and late diagnosis. Adding to this burden is the increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease in SLE together with the risk of infection made worse by immunosuppressive therapy. Challenges remain with treatment-resistant disease and symptoms such as fatigue. Newer therapies may bring hope of better outcomes, and the refinement to stem cell and genetic techniques might offer a cure in the future.",
author = "Arvind Kaul and Caroline Gordon and Crow, {Mary K} and Zahi Touma and Urowitz, {Murray B} and {van Vollenhoven}, {Ronald F} and Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza and Graham Hughes",
year = "2016",
month = jun,
day = "16",
language = "English",
volume = "2",
journal = "Nature Reviews Disease Primers",
issn = "2056-676X",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Systemic lupus erythematosus

AU - Kaul, Arvind

AU - Gordon, Caroline

AU - Crow, Mary K

AU - Touma, Zahi

AU - Urowitz, Murray B

AU - van Vollenhoven, Ronald F

AU - Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo

AU - Hughes, Graham

PY - 2016/6/16

Y1 - 2016/6/16

N2 - Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that can affect many organs, including the skin, joints, the central nervous system and the kidneys. Women of childbearing age and certain racial groups are typically predisposed to developing the condition. Rare, inherited, single-gene complement deficiencies are strongly associated with SLE, but the disease is inherited in a polygenic manner in most patients. Genetic interactions with environmental factors, particularly UV light exposure, Epstein–Barr virus infection and hormonal factors, might initiate the disease, resulting in immune dysregulation at the level of cytokines, T cells, B cells and macrophages. Diagnosis is primarily clinical and remains challenging because of the heterogeneity of SLE. Classification criteria have aided clinical trials, but, despite this, only one drug (that is, belimumab) has been approved for use in SLE in the past 60 years. The 10-year mortality has improved and toxic adverse effects of older medications such as cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids have been partially offset by newer drugs such as mycophenolate mofetil and glucocorticoid-sparing regimes. However, further improvements have been hampered by the adverse effects of renal and neuropsychiatric involvement and late diagnosis. Adding to this burden is the increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease in SLE together with the risk of infection made worse by immunosuppressive therapy. Challenges remain with treatment-resistant disease and symptoms such as fatigue. Newer therapies may bring hope of better outcomes, and the refinement to stem cell and genetic techniques might offer a cure in the future.

AB - Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that can affect many organs, including the skin, joints, the central nervous system and the kidneys. Women of childbearing age and certain racial groups are typically predisposed to developing the condition. Rare, inherited, single-gene complement deficiencies are strongly associated with SLE, but the disease is inherited in a polygenic manner in most patients. Genetic interactions with environmental factors, particularly UV light exposure, Epstein–Barr virus infection and hormonal factors, might initiate the disease, resulting in immune dysregulation at the level of cytokines, T cells, B cells and macrophages. Diagnosis is primarily clinical and remains challenging because of the heterogeneity of SLE. Classification criteria have aided clinical trials, but, despite this, only one drug (that is, belimumab) has been approved for use in SLE in the past 60 years. The 10-year mortality has improved and toxic adverse effects of older medications such as cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids have been partially offset by newer drugs such as mycophenolate mofetil and glucocorticoid-sparing regimes. However, further improvements have been hampered by the adverse effects of renal and neuropsychiatric involvement and late diagnosis. Adding to this burden is the increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease in SLE together with the risk of infection made worse by immunosuppressive therapy. Challenges remain with treatment-resistant disease and symptoms such as fatigue. Newer therapies may bring hope of better outcomes, and the refinement to stem cell and genetic techniques might offer a cure in the future.

M3 - Article

VL - 2

JO - Nature Reviews Disease Primers

JF - Nature Reviews Disease Primers

SN - 2056-676X

M1 - 16039

ER -