Stochastic Divergence or Convergence of Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Re-examining the Evidence

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This paper revisits the time-series literature on the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and examines the robustness of previous results. Using a sample of OECD countries for the period 1950-2002 we employ a battery of stationarity and unit root tests including those that allow for cross-sectional dependencies within the panel. We also correct for inaccuracies in previous studies that could result in a trend-stationary series being labelled as converging even if it were actually diverging from the international average. The body of evidence provided by our analysis suggests that per capita CO2 emissions have not converged among OECD countries during the period under consideration. This finding is of importance to both climate change policy makers and to those who construct climate change models.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-137
Number of pages17
JournalEnvironmental and Resource Economics
Issue number1
Early online date6 Sep 2007
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2008

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