State directed hybridity? - the relationship between non-profit housing organisations and the state in three national contexts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of New South Wales (UNSW) Australia
  • Delft Univ Technol


This paper presents results from the first international comparative study of non-profit housing organizations in Australia, England and the Netherlands to engage with panels of organizational leaders. The study uses a ‘modified Delphi method’ with Likert-type scaled surveys, followed by in-depth interviews. The paper introduces the concept of hybridity as a way of understanding the interaction of state, market and community drivers in steering non-profit housing organizations. In all three countries, findings indicate that there are clear limits to independence from continued state influence. In England this takes the form of state-directed cross-subsidy and welfare reform, in Australia business development strategies have had to respond to volatility and reductions in state funding, while in the Netherlands public policy has recently restricted the remit of associations to a low-income niche and reduced commercial involvement. These findings lend support to ‘contested logics’ models of organizational hybridity rather than either ‘out-of-control monstrous hybrids’ or linear privatization models.


Original languageEnglish
JournalHousing Studies
Early online date25 Sep 2017
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 25 Sep 2017


  • comparative housing , social housing , housing investment , Delphi method , hybridity , non-profits