STARD 2015: an updated list of essential items for reporting diagnostic accuracy studies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Patrick M Bossuyt
  • Johannes B Reitsma
  • David E Bruns
  • Constantine A Gatsonis
  • Paul P Glasziou
  • Les Irwig
  • Jeroen G Lijmer
  • David Moher
  • Drummond Rennie
  • Henrica C W de Vet
  • Herbert Y Kressel
  • Nader Rifai
  • Robert M Golub
  • Douglas G Altman
  • Lotty Hooft
  • Daniël A Korevaar
  • Jérémie F Cohen
  • STARD Group collaborators
  • Sue Mallett (Contributor)

Colleges, School and Institutes


Incomplete reporting has been identified as a major source of avoidable waste in biomedical research. Essential information is often not provided in study reports, impeding the identification, critical appraisal, and replication of studies. To improve the quality of reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies, the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement was developed. Here we present STARD 2015, an updated list of 30 essential items that should be included in every report of a diagnostic accuracy study. This update incorporates recent evidence about sources of bias and variability in diagnostic accuracy and is intended to facilitate the use of STARD. As such, STARD 2015 may help to improve completeness and transparency in reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies.


Original languageEnglish
Article numberh5527
Publication statusPublished - 28 Oct 2015


  • Bias (Epidemiology), Data Accuracy, Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Disclosure, Information Dissemination, Practice Guidelines as Topic, Reference Standards, Research Design