Secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through wastewater: concerns and tactics for treatment to effectively control the pandemic

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through wastewater : concerns and tactics for treatment to effectively control the pandemic. / Thakur, Amrit Kumar; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; Velraj, R.; Lynch, I.; Saidur, R.; Pandey, A. K.; Sharshir, Swellam W.; Kabeel, Abd Elnaby; Hwang, Jang Yeon; GaneshKumar, P.

In: Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 290, 112668, 15.07.2021.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Harvard

Thakur, AK, Sathyamurthy, R, Velraj, R, Lynch, I, Saidur, R, Pandey, AK, Sharshir, SW, Kabeel, AE, Hwang, JY & GaneshKumar, P 2021, 'Secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through wastewater: concerns and tactics for treatment to effectively control the pandemic', Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 290, 112668. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112668

APA

Thakur, A. K., Sathyamurthy, R., Velraj, R., Lynch, I., Saidur, R., Pandey, A. K., Sharshir, S. W., Kabeel, A. E., Hwang, J. Y., & GaneshKumar, P. (2021). Secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through wastewater: concerns and tactics for treatment to effectively control the pandemic. Journal of Environmental Management, 290, [112668]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112668

Vancouver

Author

Thakur, Amrit Kumar ; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar ; Velraj, R. ; Lynch, I. ; Saidur, R. ; Pandey, A. K. ; Sharshir, Swellam W. ; Kabeel, Abd Elnaby ; Hwang, Jang Yeon ; GaneshKumar, P. / Secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through wastewater : concerns and tactics for treatment to effectively control the pandemic. In: Journal of Environmental Management. 2021 ; Vol. 290.

Bibtex

@article{944308ef94624a8e8c019b55cca57afa,
title = "Secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through wastewater: concerns and tactics for treatment to effectively control the pandemic",
abstract = "The SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread globally and has severely impacted public health and the economy. Hand hygiene, social distancing, and the usage of personal protective equipment are considered the most vital tools in controlling the primary transmission of the virus. Converging evidence indicated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and its persistence over several days, which may create secondary transmission of the virus via waterborne and wastewater pathways. Although, researchers have started focusing on this mode of virus transmission, limited knowledge and societal unawareness of the transmission through wastewater may lead to significant increases in the number of positive cases. To emphasize the severe issue of virus transmission through wastewater and create societal awareness, we present a state of the art critical review on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and the potential remedial strategies to effectively control the viral spread and safeguard society. For low-income countries with high population densities, it is suggested to identify the virus in large scale municipal wastewater plants before following up with one-to-one testing for effective control of the secondary transmission. Ultrafiltration is an effective method for wastewater treatment and usually more than 4 logs of virus removal are achieved while safeguarding good protein permeability. Decentralized wastewater treatment facilities using solar-assisted disinfestation methods are most economical and can be effectively used in hospitals, isolation wards, and medical centers for reducing the risk of transmission from high local concentration sites, especially in tropical countries with abundant solar energy. Disinfection with chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, and peracetic acid have shown potential in terms of virucidal properties. Biological wastewater treatment using micro-algae will be highly effective in removal of virus and can be incorporated into membrane bio-reaction to achieve excellent virus removal rate. Though promising results have been shown by initial research for inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater using physical, chemical and biological based treatment methods, there is a pressing need for extensive investigation of COVID-19 specific disinfectants with appropriate concentrations, their environmental implications, and regular monitoring of transmission. Effective wastewater treatment methods with high virus removal capacity and low treatment costs should be selected to control the virus spread and safeguard society from this deadly virus.",
keywords = "COVID-19, Disinfectants, Secondary transmission, Wastewater, Wastewater treatment",
author = "Thakur, {Amrit Kumar} and Ravishankar Sathyamurthy and R. Velraj and I. Lynch and R. Saidur and Pandey, {A. K.} and Sharshir, {Swellam W.} and Kabeel, {Abd Elnaby} and Hwang, {Jang Yeon} and P. GaneshKumar",
year = "2021",
month = jul,
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112668",
language = "English",
volume = "290",
journal = "Journal of Environmental Management",
issn = "0301-4797",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through wastewater

T2 - concerns and tactics for treatment to effectively control the pandemic

AU - Thakur, Amrit Kumar

AU - Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar

AU - Velraj, R.

AU - Lynch, I.

AU - Saidur, R.

AU - Pandey, A. K.

AU - Sharshir, Swellam W.

AU - Kabeel, Abd Elnaby

AU - Hwang, Jang Yeon

AU - GaneshKumar, P.

PY - 2021/7/15

Y1 - 2021/7/15

N2 - The SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread globally and has severely impacted public health and the economy. Hand hygiene, social distancing, and the usage of personal protective equipment are considered the most vital tools in controlling the primary transmission of the virus. Converging evidence indicated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and its persistence over several days, which may create secondary transmission of the virus via waterborne and wastewater pathways. Although, researchers have started focusing on this mode of virus transmission, limited knowledge and societal unawareness of the transmission through wastewater may lead to significant increases in the number of positive cases. To emphasize the severe issue of virus transmission through wastewater and create societal awareness, we present a state of the art critical review on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and the potential remedial strategies to effectively control the viral spread and safeguard society. For low-income countries with high population densities, it is suggested to identify the virus in large scale municipal wastewater plants before following up with one-to-one testing for effective control of the secondary transmission. Ultrafiltration is an effective method for wastewater treatment and usually more than 4 logs of virus removal are achieved while safeguarding good protein permeability. Decentralized wastewater treatment facilities using solar-assisted disinfestation methods are most economical and can be effectively used in hospitals, isolation wards, and medical centers for reducing the risk of transmission from high local concentration sites, especially in tropical countries with abundant solar energy. Disinfection with chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, and peracetic acid have shown potential in terms of virucidal properties. Biological wastewater treatment using micro-algae will be highly effective in removal of virus and can be incorporated into membrane bio-reaction to achieve excellent virus removal rate. Though promising results have been shown by initial research for inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater using physical, chemical and biological based treatment methods, there is a pressing need for extensive investigation of COVID-19 specific disinfectants with appropriate concentrations, their environmental implications, and regular monitoring of transmission. Effective wastewater treatment methods with high virus removal capacity and low treatment costs should be selected to control the virus spread and safeguard society from this deadly virus.

AB - The SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread globally and has severely impacted public health and the economy. Hand hygiene, social distancing, and the usage of personal protective equipment are considered the most vital tools in controlling the primary transmission of the virus. Converging evidence indicated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and its persistence over several days, which may create secondary transmission of the virus via waterborne and wastewater pathways. Although, researchers have started focusing on this mode of virus transmission, limited knowledge and societal unawareness of the transmission through wastewater may lead to significant increases in the number of positive cases. To emphasize the severe issue of virus transmission through wastewater and create societal awareness, we present a state of the art critical review on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and the potential remedial strategies to effectively control the viral spread and safeguard society. For low-income countries with high population densities, it is suggested to identify the virus in large scale municipal wastewater plants before following up with one-to-one testing for effective control of the secondary transmission. Ultrafiltration is an effective method for wastewater treatment and usually more than 4 logs of virus removal are achieved while safeguarding good protein permeability. Decentralized wastewater treatment facilities using solar-assisted disinfestation methods are most economical and can be effectively used in hospitals, isolation wards, and medical centers for reducing the risk of transmission from high local concentration sites, especially in tropical countries with abundant solar energy. Disinfection with chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, and peracetic acid have shown potential in terms of virucidal properties. Biological wastewater treatment using micro-algae will be highly effective in removal of virus and can be incorporated into membrane bio-reaction to achieve excellent virus removal rate. Though promising results have been shown by initial research for inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater using physical, chemical and biological based treatment methods, there is a pressing need for extensive investigation of COVID-19 specific disinfectants with appropriate concentrations, their environmental implications, and regular monitoring of transmission. Effective wastewater treatment methods with high virus removal capacity and low treatment costs should be selected to control the virus spread and safeguard society from this deadly virus.

KW - COVID-19

KW - Disinfectants

KW - Secondary transmission

KW - Wastewater

KW - Wastewater treatment

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85104588122&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112668

DO - 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112668

M3 - Review article

C2 - 33895445

AN - SCOPUS:85104588122

VL - 290

JO - Journal of Environmental Management

JF - Journal of Environmental Management

SN - 0301-4797

M1 - 112668

ER -