Risk of specific birth defects in relation to chlorination and the amount of natural organic matter in the water supply

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To assess the effect of water chlorination by-products on specific birth defects, the authors conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of 285,631 Norwegian births in 1993-1998. Risks of birth defects according to four chlorination by-product exposure categories were compared on the basis of chlorination (yes/no) and level of water color (mg Pt/liter), representing the amount of natural organic matter: high (chlorination, <or =20), medium (chlorination, 10-19.9), and low (chlorination,


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)374-382
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2002