Rising CO2 concentration altered wheat grain proteome and flour rheological characteristics

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Nimesha Fernando
  • Joe Panozzo
  • Robert Norton
  • Glenn Fitzgerald
  • Alamgir Khan
  • Saman Seneweera

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Melbourne
  • Department of Environment and Primary Industries
  • International Plant Nutrition Institute
  • Macquarie University
  • University of Southern Queensland


Wheat cv. H45 was grown under ambient CO2 concentration and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE; e[CO2], ∼550 μmol CO2 mol-1). The effect of FACE on wheat grain proteome and associated changes in the flour rheological properties was investigated. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed using 2-D-DIGE followed by MALDI/TOF-MS. Total grain protein concentration was decreased by 9% at e[CO2]. Relative abundance of three high molecular weight glutenin sub units (HMW-GS) were decreased at e[CO2]. In contrast, relative abundance of serpins Z1C and 1-Cys peroxiredoxin was increased at e[CO2]. Elevated [CO2] also decreased the bread volume (by 11%) and dough strength (by 7%) while increased mixing time. However, dough extensibility and dough stability were unchanged at elevated [CO2]. These findings suggest that e[CO2] has a major impact on gluten protein concentration which is associated lower bread quality at e[CO2].


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)448-454
Number of pages7
JournalFood Chemistry
Early online date14 Jul 2014
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2015


  • Bread volume, Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE), Grain protein, Grain proteome, High molecular weight glutenin sub units