Response to: Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is independently associated with cardiovascular disease in non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Alvin H K Karangizi
  • Dimitrios Chanouzas
  • Anthony Fenton
  • Paul Cockwell
  • Charles J Ferro
  • Lorraine Harper

External organisations

  • University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust
  • University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust (UHBFT)


Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of early death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Previous work has described an association between Cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity and CVD amongst patients with dialysis dependent end stage renal disease. Whether CMV seropositivity is associated with CVD in non-dialysis dependent CKD has not been established. Aim: Investigate whether past CMV infection is associated with prevalent CVD in patients with non-dialysis dependent CKD. Design: A retrospective observational study using the Renal Impairment in Secondary Care cohort, a study evaluating bio-clinical determinants of outcomes in patients with progressive CKD. Methods: We assayed cryopreserved serum samples collected at inception for anti-CMV IgG antibodies from 764 patients with stages 2 to 5 CKD (pre-dialysis) and investigated its relationship with prevalent CVD. Results: Median estimated glomerular filtration was 24 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (IQR 19-32). Sixty-eight percent of patients were CMV seropositive. CMV seropositivity was associated with older age, non-Caucasian ethnicity, diabetes and higher social deprivation index score. On univariable analysis, CMV seropositivity correlated with higher systolic blood pressure (P = 0.044), prevalent CVD (P < 0.001), ischaemic heart disease (P < 0.001) and cerebrovascular disease (P = 0.022). On multivariable analysis, CMV seropositive patients nearly twice as likely to have CVD compared to seronegative patients [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.998, CI 1.231-3.242, P = 0.005]. Conclusions: In patients with non-dialysis CKD, CMV seropositivity is independently associated with a higher prevalence of CVD.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)702-703
Number of pages2
JournalQJM: An International Journal of Medicine
Issue number9
Early online date12 Jun 2020
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas