Recycling lithium-ion batteries from electric vehicles

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


External organisations

  • Argonne National Laboratory
  • University of Leicester
  • Newcastle University


Rapid growth in the market for electric vehicles is imperative, to meet global targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, to improve air quality in urban centres and to meet the needs of consumers, with whom electric vehicles are increasingly popular. However, growing numbers of electric vehicles present a serious waste-management challenge for recyclers at end-of-life. Nevertheless, spent batteries may also present an opportunity as manufacturers require access to strategic elements and critical materials for key components in electric-vehicle manufacture: recycled lithium-ion batteries from electric vehicles could provide a valuable secondary source of materials. Here we outline and evaluate the current range of approaches to electric-vehicle lithium-ion battery recycling and re-use, and highlight areas for future progress.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-86
Number of pages12
Issue number7781
Publication statusPublished - 6 Nov 2019