Recommendations for the nonpharmacological treatment of apathy in brain disorders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Valeria Manera
  • Sharon Abrahams
  • Luis Agüera-Ortiz
  • François Bremond
  • Renaud David
  • Kaci Fairchild
  • Auriane Gros
  • Cécile Hanon
  • Masud Husain
  • Alexandra König
  • Maribel Pino
  • Ratko Radakovic
  • Gabriel Robert
  • Andrea Slachevsky
  • Florindo Stella
  • Anaïs Tribouillard
  • Pietro Davide Trimarchi
  • Frans Verhey
  • Jerome Yesavage
  • Radia Zeghari
  • Philippe Robert

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Université Côte d'Azur
  • The University of Edinburgh, Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Centre, Western General Hospital, EH4 University Cancer Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Department of Psychiatry
  • Stanford University
  • Paris Descartes University
  • University of Oxford
  • EA4712 "Comportement et Noyaux Gris Centraux" (GR)
  • Nephrology Division, Clinical Hospital, University of Chile, Chile.
  • Institute for Molecular Biosciences
  • Lyon Astrophysical Research Centre, University of Lyon
  • IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi (PDT)
  • University of Maastricht, Maastricht Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands


Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome observed across many neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders. Although there are currently no definitive standard therapies for the treatment of apathy, nonpharmacological treatment (NPT) is often considered to be at the forefront of clinical management. However, guidelines on how to select, prescribe, and administer NPT in clinical practice are lacking. Furthermore, although new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are beginning to be employed in NPT, their role is still unclear. The objective of the present work is to provide recommendations for the use of NPT for apathy, and to discuss the role of ICT in this domain, based on opinions gathered from experts in the field. The expert panel included 20 researchers and healthcare professionals working on brain disorders and apathy. Following a standard Delphi methodology, experts answered questions via several rounds of web-surveys, and then discussed the results in a plenary meeting. The experts suggested that NPT are useful to consider as therapy for people presenting with different neurocognitive and psychiatric diseases at all stages, with evidence of apathy across domains. The presence of a therapist and/or a caregiver is important in delivering NPT effectively, but parts of the treatment may be performed by the patient alone. NPT can be delivered both in clinical settings and at home. However, while remote treatment delivery may be cost and time-effective, it should be considered with caution, and tailored based on the patient's cognitive and physical profile and living conditions.

Bibliographic note

Copyright © 2019 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)410-420
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Issue number4
Early online date9 Aug 2019
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020