Real-time monitoring and hydrodynamic scaling of shear exfoliated graphene

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Real-time monitoring and hydrodynamic scaling of shear exfoliated graphene. / Stafford, Jason; Uzo, Nwachukwu ; Farooq, Usmaan ; Favero, Silvia ; Wang, Si ; Chen, Hsueh-Hung; L'Hermitte, Anouk ; Petit, Camille ; Matar, Omar K.

In: 2D Materials, Vol. 8, No. 2, 025029, 25.02.2021.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Stafford, J, Uzo, N, Farooq, U, Favero, S, Wang, S, Chen, H-H, L'Hermitte, A, Petit, C & Matar, OK 2021, 'Real-time monitoring and hydrodynamic scaling of shear exfoliated graphene', 2D Materials, vol. 8, no. 2, 025029. https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1583/abdf2f

APA

Stafford, J., Uzo, N., Farooq, U., Favero, S., Wang, S., Chen, H-H., L'Hermitte, A., Petit, C., & Matar, O. K. (2021). Real-time monitoring and hydrodynamic scaling of shear exfoliated graphene. 2D Materials, 8(2), [025029]. https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1583/abdf2f

Vancouver

Author

Stafford, Jason ; Uzo, Nwachukwu ; Farooq, Usmaan ; Favero, Silvia ; Wang, Si ; Chen, Hsueh-Hung ; L'Hermitte, Anouk ; Petit, Camille ; Matar, Omar K. / Real-time monitoring and hydrodynamic scaling of shear exfoliated graphene. In: 2D Materials. 2021 ; Vol. 8, No. 2.

Bibtex

@article{de1f22cd12d94f8094b0a99cd0e27d65,
title = "Real-time monitoring and hydrodynamic scaling of shear exfoliated graphene",
abstract = "Shear-assisted liquid exfoliation is a primary candidate for producing defect-free two-dimensional (2D) materials. A range of approaches that delaminate nanosheets from layered precursors in solution have emerged in recent years. Diverse hydrodynamic conditions exist across these methods, and combined with low-throughput, high-cost characterization techniques, strongly contribute to the wide variability in performance and material quality. Nanosheet concentration and production rate are usually correlated against operating parameters unique to each production method, making it difficult to compare, optimize and predict scale-up performance. Here, we reveal the shear exfoliation mechanism from precursor to 2D material and extract the derived hydrodynamic parameters and scaling relationship that are key to nanomaterial output and common to all shear exfoliation processes. Our investigations use conditions created from two different hydrodynamic instabilities—Taylor vortices and interfacial waves—and combine materials characterization, fluid dynamics experiments and numerical simulations. Using graphene as the prototypical 2D material, we find that scaling of concentration of few-layer nanosheets depends on local strain rate distribution, relationship to the critical exfoliation criterion, and precursor residence time. We report a transmission-reflectance method to measure concentration profiles in real-time, using low-cost optoelectronics and without the need to remove the layered precursor material from the dispersion. We show that our high-throughput, in situ approach has broad uses by controlling the number of atomic layers on-the-fly, rapidly optimizing green solvent design to maximize yield, and viewing live production rates. Combining the findings on the hydrodynamics of exfoliation with this monitoring technique, we unlock targeted process intensification, quality control, batch traceability and individually customizable 2D materials on-demand.",
keywords = "Graphene, In situ characterization, Liquid-phase exfoliation, Scale up, Shear exfoliation",
author = "Jason Stafford and Nwachukwu Uzo and Usmaan Farooq and Silvia Favero and Si Wang and Hsueh-Hung Chen and Anouk L'Hermitte and Camille Petit and Matar, {Omar K.}",
year = "2021",
month = feb,
day = "25",
doi = "10.1088/2053-1583/abdf2f",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "2D Materials",
issn = "2053-1583",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "2",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Real-time monitoring and hydrodynamic scaling of shear exfoliated graphene

AU - Stafford, Jason

AU - Uzo, Nwachukwu

AU - Farooq, Usmaan

AU - Favero, Silvia

AU - Wang, Si

AU - Chen, Hsueh-Hung

AU - L'Hermitte, Anouk

AU - Petit, Camille

AU - Matar, Omar K.

PY - 2021/2/25

Y1 - 2021/2/25

N2 - Shear-assisted liquid exfoliation is a primary candidate for producing defect-free two-dimensional (2D) materials. A range of approaches that delaminate nanosheets from layered precursors in solution have emerged in recent years. Diverse hydrodynamic conditions exist across these methods, and combined with low-throughput, high-cost characterization techniques, strongly contribute to the wide variability in performance and material quality. Nanosheet concentration and production rate are usually correlated against operating parameters unique to each production method, making it difficult to compare, optimize and predict scale-up performance. Here, we reveal the shear exfoliation mechanism from precursor to 2D material and extract the derived hydrodynamic parameters and scaling relationship that are key to nanomaterial output and common to all shear exfoliation processes. Our investigations use conditions created from two different hydrodynamic instabilities—Taylor vortices and interfacial waves—and combine materials characterization, fluid dynamics experiments and numerical simulations. Using graphene as the prototypical 2D material, we find that scaling of concentration of few-layer nanosheets depends on local strain rate distribution, relationship to the critical exfoliation criterion, and precursor residence time. We report a transmission-reflectance method to measure concentration profiles in real-time, using low-cost optoelectronics and without the need to remove the layered precursor material from the dispersion. We show that our high-throughput, in situ approach has broad uses by controlling the number of atomic layers on-the-fly, rapidly optimizing green solvent design to maximize yield, and viewing live production rates. Combining the findings on the hydrodynamics of exfoliation with this monitoring technique, we unlock targeted process intensification, quality control, batch traceability and individually customizable 2D materials on-demand.

AB - Shear-assisted liquid exfoliation is a primary candidate for producing defect-free two-dimensional (2D) materials. A range of approaches that delaminate nanosheets from layered precursors in solution have emerged in recent years. Diverse hydrodynamic conditions exist across these methods, and combined with low-throughput, high-cost characterization techniques, strongly contribute to the wide variability in performance and material quality. Nanosheet concentration and production rate are usually correlated against operating parameters unique to each production method, making it difficult to compare, optimize and predict scale-up performance. Here, we reveal the shear exfoliation mechanism from precursor to 2D material and extract the derived hydrodynamic parameters and scaling relationship that are key to nanomaterial output and common to all shear exfoliation processes. Our investigations use conditions created from two different hydrodynamic instabilities—Taylor vortices and interfacial waves—and combine materials characterization, fluid dynamics experiments and numerical simulations. Using graphene as the prototypical 2D material, we find that scaling of concentration of few-layer nanosheets depends on local strain rate distribution, relationship to the critical exfoliation criterion, and precursor residence time. We report a transmission-reflectance method to measure concentration profiles in real-time, using low-cost optoelectronics and without the need to remove the layered precursor material from the dispersion. We show that our high-throughput, in situ approach has broad uses by controlling the number of atomic layers on-the-fly, rapidly optimizing green solvent design to maximize yield, and viewing live production rates. Combining the findings on the hydrodynamics of exfoliation with this monitoring technique, we unlock targeted process intensification, quality control, batch traceability and individually customizable 2D materials on-demand.

KW - Graphene

KW - In situ characterization

KW - Liquid-phase exfoliation

KW - Scale up

KW - Shear exfoliation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85102578014&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/2053-1583/abdf2f

DO - 10.1088/2053-1583/abdf2f

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - 2D Materials

JF - 2D Materials

SN - 2053-1583

IS - 2

M1 - 025029

ER -