Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Hu Li
  • Mohamed A. Altaher
  • Chris W. Wilson
  • Winson Chung
  • Lucas Rye

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Leeds
  • Sheffield University
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering


In this research three renewable aviation fuel blends including two HEFA (Hydrotreated Ester and Fatty Acid) blends and one FAE (Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester) blend with conventional Jet A-1 along with a GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel have been tested for their aldehydes emissions on a small gas turbine engine. Three strong ozone formation precursors: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were measured in the exhaust at different operational modes and compared to neat Jet A-1. The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment of new fuels in aviation. The results show that formaldehyde was a major aldehyde species emitted with a fraction of around 60% of total measured aldehydes emissions for all fuels. Acrolein was the second major emitted aldehyde species with a fraction of ~30%. Acetaldehyde emissions were very low for all the fuels and below the detention limit of the instrument. The formaldehyde emissions at cold idle were up to two to threefold higher than that at full power. The fractions of formaldehyde were 6-10% and 20% of total hydrocarbon emissions in ppm at idle and full power respectively and doubled on a gkg-1-fuel basis.

Bibliographic note

Funding Information: We would like to thank European Commission's Directorate General for Mobility and Transport for the support of this research by funding SWAFEA program under contract TREN/F2/408.2008/SI2.518403/SI2.519012 . Thanks also go to Libyan government for a studentship for Mohamed Altaher. Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)373-379
Number of pages7
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2013


  • Aldehyde emission, Alternative aviation fuel, Formaldehyde emission, Gas turbine, Renewable aviation fuel