Psychological skill use in adolescents: Exploring the structural and temporal validity of the TOPS

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@article{239a2ec7ddb9457dba3797b3c61fd57c,
title = "Psychological skill use in adolescents: Exploring the structural and temporal validity of the TOPS",
abstract = "The Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS, Thomas, Murphy,  and Hardy, 1999) is one of the most popular questionnaires in sport psychology to measure athletes{\textquoteright} mental skill use. However, doubts concerning the instrument{\textquoteright}s appropriateness for adolescent athletes have limited its use within this population (Lane, Harwood, Terry, & Karageorghis, 2004). Moreover, the stability of the TOPS has yet to be discerned despite it being used to establish pre to post intervention changes in mental skill use. The aim of the present study was to re-examine and validate the TOPS to measure psychological skill use over a season long mental skills training program for adolescent athletes. Following a needs analysis of the target population (Holland, Woodcock, Cumming, & Duda, 2010), 469 British athletes (321 male and 148 female, M age = 15.36 yrs, SD = 1.22) completed a reduced 10 subscale version of the TOPS. The structural validity of a practice and a competition 5-factor model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For practice, goodness of fit indices failed to reach acceptable cut-off limits suggesting a poor model fit (chi^2(160) = 649.89, p > .001, SRMA = .11, TLI = .80, CFI = .83, RMSEA = .08). For competition, only adequate support was found in the case of indices reflecting comparative fit to the baseline model signifying potential for improvement (chi^2(160) = 411.00, p > .001, SRMA = 0.06, TLI = 0.90, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.06). Both models were respecified and acceptable fit emerged. Gender and competitive level differences in subscale scores were examined. The predictive validity of the modified measure of psychological skill use was determined in terms of competitive trait anxiety and confidence. Finally test-retest reliability was assessed on a subsample of 29 athletes over 3 months. All subscales revealed poor to moderate intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .25 to .70. Findings are discussed in relation to previous literature exploring the psychometric properties of the TOPS.",
keywords = "adolescents, Teams, Teenagers, TOPS, Validity, Young athletes, youth",
author = "Charlotte Woodcock and Mark Holland and Lee-Ann Sharp and Joan Duda and Jennifer Cumming",
year = "2010",
language = "English",
volume = "32",
journal = "Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology",
issn = "0895-2779",
publisher = "Human Kinetics",
number = "S",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Psychological skill use in adolescents: Exploring the structural and temporal validity of the TOPS

AU - Woodcock, Charlotte

AU - Holland, Mark

AU - Sharp, Lee-Ann

AU - Duda, Joan

AU - Cumming, Jennifer

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - The Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS, Thomas, Murphy,  and Hardy, 1999) is one of the most popular questionnaires in sport psychology to measure athletes’ mental skill use. However, doubts concerning the instrument’s appropriateness for adolescent athletes have limited its use within this population (Lane, Harwood, Terry, & Karageorghis, 2004). Moreover, the stability of the TOPS has yet to be discerned despite it being used to establish pre to post intervention changes in mental skill use. The aim of the present study was to re-examine and validate the TOPS to measure psychological skill use over a season long mental skills training program for adolescent athletes. Following a needs analysis of the target population (Holland, Woodcock, Cumming, & Duda, 2010), 469 British athletes (321 male and 148 female, M age = 15.36 yrs, SD = 1.22) completed a reduced 10 subscale version of the TOPS. The structural validity of a practice and a competition 5-factor model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For practice, goodness of fit indices failed to reach acceptable cut-off limits suggesting a poor model fit (chi^2(160) = 649.89, p > .001, SRMA = .11, TLI = .80, CFI = .83, RMSEA = .08). For competition, only adequate support was found in the case of indices reflecting comparative fit to the baseline model signifying potential for improvement (chi^2(160) = 411.00, p > .001, SRMA = 0.06, TLI = 0.90, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.06). Both models were respecified and acceptable fit emerged. Gender and competitive level differences in subscale scores were examined. The predictive validity of the modified measure of psychological skill use was determined in terms of competitive trait anxiety and confidence. Finally test-retest reliability was assessed on a subsample of 29 athletes over 3 months. All subscales revealed poor to moderate intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .25 to .70. Findings are discussed in relation to previous literature exploring the psychometric properties of the TOPS.

AB - The Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS, Thomas, Murphy,  and Hardy, 1999) is one of the most popular questionnaires in sport psychology to measure athletes’ mental skill use. However, doubts concerning the instrument’s appropriateness for adolescent athletes have limited its use within this population (Lane, Harwood, Terry, & Karageorghis, 2004). Moreover, the stability of the TOPS has yet to be discerned despite it being used to establish pre to post intervention changes in mental skill use. The aim of the present study was to re-examine and validate the TOPS to measure psychological skill use over a season long mental skills training program for adolescent athletes. Following a needs analysis of the target population (Holland, Woodcock, Cumming, & Duda, 2010), 469 British athletes (321 male and 148 female, M age = 15.36 yrs, SD = 1.22) completed a reduced 10 subscale version of the TOPS. The structural validity of a practice and a competition 5-factor model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For practice, goodness of fit indices failed to reach acceptable cut-off limits suggesting a poor model fit (chi^2(160) = 649.89, p > .001, SRMA = .11, TLI = .80, CFI = .83, RMSEA = .08). For competition, only adequate support was found in the case of indices reflecting comparative fit to the baseline model signifying potential for improvement (chi^2(160) = 411.00, p > .001, SRMA = 0.06, TLI = 0.90, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.06). Both models were respecified and acceptable fit emerged. Gender and competitive level differences in subscale scores were examined. The predictive validity of the modified measure of psychological skill use was determined in terms of competitive trait anxiety and confidence. Finally test-retest reliability was assessed on a subsample of 29 athletes over 3 months. All subscales revealed poor to moderate intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .25 to .70. Findings are discussed in relation to previous literature exploring the psychometric properties of the TOPS.

KW - adolescents

KW - Teams

KW - Teenagers

KW - TOPS

KW - Validity

KW - Young athletes

KW - youth

M3 - Abstract

VL - 32

JO - Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

JF - Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

SN - 0895-2779

IS - S

ER -