Pseudomorphic 2A -> 2M -> 2H phase transitions in lanthanum strontium germanate electrolyte apatites

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • SS Pramana
  • TJ White
  • MK Schreyer
  • C Ferraris
  • TJ Bastow
  • S Mangold
  • S Doyle
  • T Liu
  • A Fajar
  • M Srinivasan
  • T Baikie

Colleges, School and Institutes


Apatite-like materials are of considerable interest as potential solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes, although their structural vagaries continue to attract significant discussion. Understanding these features is crucial both to explain the oxide ion conduction process and to optimise it. As the composition of putative P6(3)/m apatites with ideal formula [A(4)(I)][A(6)(II)][(BO4)(6)][X](2) is varied the [A(4)(I)(BO4)(6)] framework will flex to better accommodate the [A(6)(II)X(2)] tunnel component through adjustment of the A(I)O(6) metaprism twist angle (phi). The space group theory prescribes that framework adaptation during phase changes must lead to one of the maximal non-isomorphic subgroups of P6(3)/m (P2(1), P2(1)/m, P (1) over bar). These adaptations correlate with oxygen ion conduction, and become crucial especially when the tunnels are filled by relatively small ions and/or partially occupied, and if interstitial oxygens are located in the framework. Detecting and completely describing these lower symmetry structures can be challenging, as it is difficult to precisely control apatite stoichiometry and small departures from the hexagonal metric may be near the limits of detection. Using a combination of diffraction and spectroscopic techniques it is shown that lanthanum strontium germanate oxide electrolytes crystallise as triclinic (A), monoclinic (M) and hexagonal (H) bi-layer pseudomorphs with the composition ranges: [La10-xSrx][(GeO4)(5+x/2)(GeO5)(1-x/2)][O-2] (0


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8280-8291
Number of pages12
JournalDalton Transactions
Issue number39
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009