Prognostic factors for first-line therapy and overall survival of metastatic uveal melanoma: The Princess Margaret Cancer Centre experience

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Mathew N Nicholas
  • Eshetu G Atenafu
  • David Hogg
  • Ian Quirt
  • Marcus Butler
  • Anthony M Joshua

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Departments of Pediatrics, Hematology, Oncology and Department of General Nursery, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
  • Melanoma Institute of Australia
  • University of Dundee


Metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) has a poor prognosis, with no established standard of care. Delineation of prognostic factors in MUM patients may enable stratified treatment algorithms of stage-specific survival. Overall, 132 MUM patients who presented to a single tertiary institution in Toronto, Canada, over 12 years were identified and data (demographics, clinical status, radiographic images, and laboratory values) were extracted. Associations with systemic first-line treatment outcome 12 weeks after first-line treatment, time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS) were explored by univariate and multivariable analysis. Age, presence of liver metastases, and time from primary presentation to metastatic presentation were significant variables affecting first-line treatment outcomes. Age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score, presence of liver metastases, liver metastasis size, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, absolute neutrophil count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase, time from primary presentation to metastatic presentation, and patients receiving surgery as the first-line treatment were significant variables affecting TTP. Age, ECOG score, presence of liver metastases, liver metastasis size, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, absolute neutrophil count, LDH, and alkaline phosphatase were significant variables affecting OS. Patients who underwent surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, liver-directed therapy, or targeted therapy had better OS compared with patients not receiving treatment with surgery, associated with a significantly better OS compared with all other therapies. Multivariable analysis showed increased age, absence of liver metastases, and absence of bone metastases to be associated with positive treatment outcomes. ECOG score of at least 1, increased LDH, and decreased time from primary to metastatic presentation would predict decreased TTP. Increased LDH, older age, and ECOG score of at least 1 were associated with decreased OS. These results identified prognostic markers and models thereof of treatment benefit and survival. Further validation in larger cohorts is required.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)571-577
Number of pages7
JournalMelanoma Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018


  • Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Canada, Child, Female, Humans, Male, Melanoma/drug therapy, Middle Aged, Prognosis, Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy, Survival Analysis, Uveal Neoplasms/drug therapy, Young Adult