Prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen in an elderly UK Caucasian population-The Bridlington Eye Assessment Project (BEAP): a cross-sectional study (2002-2006)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Craig Wilde
  • Ali Poostchi
  • Jonathan G Hillman
  • Hamish K MacNab
  • Marco Messina
  • Marco Morales
  • Stephen A Vernon
  • Winfried M Amoaku

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust
  • The Medical Centre, Station Avenue, Bridlington, YO16 4LZ, UK.
  • University of Nottingham


AIMS: To determine prevalence, associations, and risk factors for reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) in a UK population.

METHODS: Cross-sectional study of Bridlington residents aged ≥65 years. Masked grading of colour fundus photographs from 3549 participants. RPD presence, phenotype, and topography were recorded, demographic details were analysed, and prevalence was calculated.

RESULTS: RPD was detected in 281 eyes (176 individuals) of 3476 participants (5.06%) with gradable images, and bilateral in 76.6%. Digital enhancement increased detection by 15.7%. Prevalence increased significantly with age from 1.18% (65-69 years) to 27.27% (≥90 years) (mean age 81.1, SD 6.01; OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.15-1.21, p value <0.001), was higher in females (5.9% vs 4.0%; OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09-2.13, p = 0.014), and associated with diabetes (OR 1.97, CI 1.20-3.17, p = 0.005). History of antihypertension treatment appeared protective (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.90, p = 0.009). RPD subtypes were dot in 18.5%, ribbon in 36.7%, and mixed in 36.3%. RPD were located outside the ETDRS grid in 88%, and most commonly in the outer superior subfield. Central grid involvement occurred in 12.1% of right and 14.3% of left eyes. RPD occurred in 25.9% of participants with grade 4 AMD in at least one eye. RPD was associated with visual dissatisfaction after controlling for age (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.88, p = 0.007).

CONCLUSION: RPD occur more commonly than previously reported, most frequently in the upper-outer macular subfield, but also within the central subfield, albeit with reduced frequency and altered morphology. RPD may be associated with visual dissatisfaction and diabetes, but are less frequent in persons receiving antihypertension therapy.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1130-1137
Number of pages8
JournalEye (London, England)
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018