Prevalence of depression in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism or undiagnosed diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the European Depression in Diabetes (EDID) Research Consortium.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • G Nefs
  • Isabela Caramlau
  • K Winkley
  • CE Lloyd
  • M Peyrot
  • F Pouwer

Colleges, School and Institutes


OBJECTIVE Meta-analyses have shown that the risk for depression is elevated in type 2 diabetes. Whether this risk in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) or undiagnosed diabetes (UDD) is elevated relative to normal glucose metabolism (NGM) or decreased relative to previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes (PDD) has not been the subject of a systematic review/meta-analysis. This study examined the prevalence of depression in IGM and UDD subjects relative to each other and to NGM and PDD subjects by reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis of studies on this topic. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for articles published up to May 2010. All studies that compared the prevalence of depression in subjects with IGM and UDD were included. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed and random-effects models. RESULTS The meta-analysis showed that the risk for depression was not increased in IGM versus NGM subjects (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.85-1.08). Risk for depression did not differ between individuals with UDD and individuals with either NGM (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.71-1.25) or IGM (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.88-1.54). Finally, individuals with IGM or UDD both had a significantly lower risk of depression than individuals with PDD (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48-0.73, and OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45-0.74, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Results of this meta-analysis show that the risk of depression is similar for NGM, IGM, and UDD subjects. PDD subjects have an increased risk of depression relative to IGM and UDD subjects.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)752-62
Number of pages11
JournalDiabetes Care
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2011