Positive and negative parenting in conduct disorder with high versus low levels of callous-unemotional traits

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Roberta Clanton
  • Philippa Birch
  • Abigail Brown
  • Gemma Daniel
  • Lisandra Ferreira
  • Liam Grisley
  • Gregor Kohls
  • Sarah Baumann
  • Anka Bernhard
  • Anne Martinelli
  • Katharina Ackermann
  • Helen Lazaratou
  • Foteini Tsiakoulia
  • Panagiota Bali
  • Helena Oldenhof
  • Lucres Jansen
  • Areti Smaragdi
  • Karen Gonzalez-Madruga
  • Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Torres
  • Maider González de Artaza-Lavesa
  • Martin Steppan
  • Noortje Vriends
  • Aitana Bigorra
  • Réka Siklósi
  • Sreejita Ghosh
  • Kerstin Bunte
  • Roberta Dochnal
  • Amaia Hervas
  • Christina Stadler
  • Aranzazu Fernández-Rivas
  • Graeme Fairchild
  • Arne Popma
  • Dimitris Dikeos
  • Kerstin Konrad
  • Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
  • Christine M. Freitag
  • Stephane De Brito

External organisations

  • University of Athens
  • University Hospital Aachen
  • Goethe University
  • Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre
  • University of Southampton
  • Basurto University Hospital
  • University of Basel
  • University of Szeged Faculty of Medicine
  • Mutua de Terrassa
  • University of Bath
  • VUmc/De Bascule
  • RWTH Aachen University
  • Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy


Less is known about the relationship between conduct disorder (CD), callous-unemotional (CU) traits and positive and negative parenting in youth compared to early childhood. We combined traditional univariate analyses with a novel machine learning classifier (Angle-based Generalised Matrix Learning Vector Quantisation) to classify youth (N = 756; 9-18 years) into typically developing (TD) or CD groups with or without elevated CU traits (CD/HCU, CD/LCU respectively) using youthand parent-report parenting behaviour. At the group level, both CD/HCU and CD/LCU were associated with high negative and low positive parenting relative to TD. However, only positive parenting differed between the CD/HCU and CD/LCU groups. In classification analyses, performance was best when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD groups and poorest when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. Positive and negative parenting were both relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD, negative parenting was most relevant when distinguishing between CD/LCU and TD, and positive parenting was most relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. These findings suggest that while positive parenting distinguishes between CD/HCU and CD/LCU, negative parenting is associated with both CD subtypes. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple parenting behaviours in CD with varying levels of CU traits in late childhood/adolescence.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalDevelopment and Psychopathology
Early online date23 Jun 2020
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jun 2020


  • angle-based generalized matrix learning vector quantization, callous-unemotional traits, conduct disorder, machine learning, parenting