Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brachial artery distensibility and blood pressure among children residing near an oil refinery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Leonardo Trasande
  • Elaine M. Urbina
  • Mamdouh Khoder
  • Mansour Alghamdi
  • Ibrahim Shabaj
  • Magdy Shamy

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • New York University, New York, NY, USA.
  • Department of Molecular Pathogenesis, New York University, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, School of Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016
  • Departments of Biology and Pediatrics and the Roy J. Carver Center for Genomics, 459 Biology Building, University of Iowa, Iowa City IA 52242
  • College of Education and Human Development; University of Louisville; Louisville; KY; USA
  • Department Complex Genetics, Cluster of Genetics and Cell Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, the Netherlands
  • Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences
  • Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University
  • School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham
  • King Abdulaziz University
  • New York University School of Medicine
  • Population Health, New York University School of Medicine
  • New York University
  • NYU Steinhardt School of Culture
  • Food and Public Health
  • Global Institute of Public Health
  • Division of Preventive Cardiology
  • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
  • King Abdulaziz University


Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are produced by the burning and processing of fuel oils, and have been associated with oxidant stress, insulin resistance and hypertension in adults. Few studies have examined whether adolescents are susceptible to cardiovascular effects of PAHs. Objective: To study associations of PAH exposure with blood pressure (BP) and brachial artery distensibility (BAD), an early marker of arterial wall stiffness, in young boys attending three schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in varying proximity to an oil refinery. Methods: Air samples collected from the three schools were analyzed for PAHs. PAH metabolites (total hydroxyphenanthrenes and 1-hydroxypyrene) were measured in urine samples from 184 adolescent males, in whom anthropometrics, heart rate, pulse pressure, brachial artery distensibility and blood pressure were measured. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to assess relationships of school location and urinary PAH metabolites with cardiovascular measures. Results: Total suspended matter was significantly higher (444±143μg/m3) at the school near the refinery compared to a school located near a ring road (395±65μg/m3) and a school located away from vehicle traffic (232±137μg/m3), as were PAHs. Systolic (0.47 SD units, p=0.006) and diastolic (0.53 SD units, p<0.001) BP Z-scores were highest at the school near the refinery, with a 4.36-fold increase in prehypertension (p=0.001), controlling for confounders. No differences in pulse pressure, BAD and heart rate were noted in relationship to school location. Urinary total hydroxyphenanthrenes and 1-hydroxypyrene were not associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions: Proximity to an oil refinery in Saudi Arabia is associated with prehypertension and increases in PAH and particulate matter exposures. Further study including insulin resistance measurements, better control for confounding, and longitudinal measurement is indicated.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-140
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Research
Early online date20 Nov 2014
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


  • Adolescents, Brachial artery distensibility, Particulate matter, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Prehypertension