Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in car and house dust from Thailand: Implication for human exposure

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Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Prince of Songkla University
  • Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM)


This study examines concentrations of tri- to hexa-bromodiphenylethers (BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153 and 154; Σ10PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers)) in car (n = 30) and house dust samples (n = 53) collected from different provinces in Thailand. The specific objectives of this study were: (i) to monitor levels of tri- to hexa-bromodiphenylethers (BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153 and 154; Σ10PBDEs) in vehicle and residential dust sampled from various provinces in Thailand; (ii) to compare PBDE concentrations with those detected for domestic and automobile dust in studies from other countries and (iii) to estimate exposure of the Thai population to the target PBDEs via dust ingestion. Levels of Σ10PBDEs in vehicle and domestic dust were 0.68–38 and 0.59–260 ng g−1, respectively. BDEs 99 and 47 were the most abundant congeners in all automobile and residential dust samples. A t-test analysis indicated that Σ10PBDE concentrations in dust samples from dwellings exceeded significantly those from cars (p = 0.001). Furthermore, contents in dust of all PBDEs studied, except for BDE-28, were significantly higher in homes than in vehicles (p = 0.000–0.004). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) demonstrated no differences in PBDE congener patterns between Thai house and automobile dust, but revealed some subtle differences in the congener pattern between household dust samples in Thailand and those reported previously for the United Kingdom. Estimated environmental exposure of Thai adults and children for BDE-99 via dust ingestion were well within a chronic oral reference dose (RfD) for BDE-99 (100 ng/kg bw/day) proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA).


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering
Early online date12 Feb 2018
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 12 Feb 2018


  • Car, exposure, home, indoor dust, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas