PM10 and PM2.5 emission factors for non-exhaust particles from road vehicles: dependence upon vehicle mass and implications for battery electric vehicles

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  • King Abdulaziz University


Governments around the world are legislating to end the sale of conventionally fuelled (gasoline and diesel) internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) and it is assumed that battery-electric vehicles (BEV) will take their place. It has been suggested that due to their increased weight, non-exhaust emissions of particles from BEV may exceed all particle emissions, including exhaust, from an ICEV. This paper examines the vehicle weight-dependence of PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from abrasion (brake, tyre and road surface wear) and road dust resuspension and generates a comparison of the two vehicle types. The outcome is critically dependent upon the extent of regenerative braking relative to use of friction brakes on the BEV, but overall there will be only modest changes to the total local emissions of particles from a passenger car built to current emissions standards.


Original languageEnglish
Article number117886
Number of pages10
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Early online date26 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021


  • Vehicle emissions, Non-exhaust, Electric vehicle, Regenerative braking