Performance of multiphase scaffolds for bone repair based on two-photon polymerized poly(d,l-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone), recombinamers hydrogel and nano-HA

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Reda M. Felfel
  • Adi Z. Zabidi
  • Amy Prosser
  • Colin A. Scotchford
  • Virginie Sottile
  • David M. Grant

Colleges, School and Institutes


Multiphase hybrids were fabricated from poly(d,l-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (PLCL) copolymer scaffolds impregnated with silk-elastin-like recombinamers (SELRs) hydrogel containing 2 wt% hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA). The PLCL scaffolds, triply-periodic minimal surface geometry, were manufactured using two-photon stereolithography. In vitro degradation studies were conducted on PLCL scaffolds in inflamed tissue mimic media (pH ~ 4.5–6.5) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Compression test revealed instant shape recovery of PLCL scaffolds after compression to 70% strain, ideal for arthroscopic delivery. Degradation of these scaffolds was accelerated in acidic media, where mass loss and compressive properties at day 56 were about 2–6 times lower than the scaffolds degraded in PBS. No significant difference was seen in the compressive properties between PLCL scaffolds and the hybrids due to the order of magnitude difference between the hydrogels and the PLCL scaffolds. Moreover, degradation properties of the hybrids did not significantly change by inclusion of SELR+/−nHA nanocomposite hydrogels. The hybrids lost approximately 40% and 84% of their initial weight and mechanical properties, respectively after 112 days of degradation. Cytotoxicity assessment revealed no cytotoxic effects of PLCL or PLCL-SELR+/−2%nHA scaffolds on bone marrow-derived human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. These findings highlight the potential of these hybrid constructs for bone and cartilage repair.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)455-467
JournalMaterials and Design
Early online date19 Sep 2018
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2018


  • Poly(d,l-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) copolymer, Multiphase hybrids, In vitro degradation, Mechanical recovery, human Mesenchymal Stem Cells