Osteoconduction and osteoinduction of low-temperature 3D printed bioceramic implants

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Pamela Habibovic
  • Uwe Gbureck
  • Charles J. Doillon
  • Clemens A. van Blitterswijk
  • Jake E. Barralet

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Twente
  • University of Würzburg
  • CHUQ
  • McGill University


Rapid prototyping is a valuable implant production tool that enables the investigation of individual geometric parameters, such as shape, porosity, pore size and permeability, on the biological performance of synthetic bone graft substitutes. In the present study, we have employed low-temperature direct 3D printing to produce brushite and monetite implants with different geometries. Blocks predominantly consisting of brushite with channels either open or closed to the exterior were implanted on the decorticated lumbar transverse processes of goats for 12 weeks. In addition, similar blocks with closed channel geometry, consisting of either brushite or monetite were implanted intramuscularly. The design of the channels allowed investigation of the effect of macropore geometry (open and closed pores) and osteoinduction on bone formation orthotopically. Intramuscular implantation resulted in bone formation within the channels of both monetite and brushite, indicating osteoinductivity of these resorbable materials. Inside the blocks mounted on the transverse processes, initial channel shape did not seem to significantly influence the final amount of formed bone and osteoinduction was suggested to contribute to bone formation.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)944-953
Number of pages10
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2008


  • Calcium phosphate cement, In vivo test, Osteoconduction, Osteoinduction, Three dimensional printing