ORIGIN: Metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Authors

  • J.-W. den Herder
  • J.S. Kaastra
  • E. Costantini
  • J. de Plaa
  • R. den Hartog
  • W. Hermsen
  • J. in't Zand
  • P. Jonker
  • P. de Korte
  • L. Piro
  • L. Colasanti
  • A. Corsi
  • A. De Rosa
  • M. Del Santo
  • S. Di Cosimo
  • B. Gendre
  • M. Cocchi
  • C. Macculi
  • L. Natalucci
  • P. Ubertini
  • T. Ohashi
  • Y. Ezoe
  • Y. Ishisaki
  • H. Kawahara
  • S. Sasaki
  • C. Kouveliotou
  • A. van der Horst
  • M. Weisskopf
  • D.H. Hartmann
  • L. Amati
  • E. Caroli
  • M. Labanti
  • M.I. Andersen
  • J. Fynbo
  • J. Hjorth
  • K. Pedersen
  • M. Arnaud
  • J.-L. Attéia
  • S. Bandler
  • S. Barthelmy
  • N. Gehrels
  • R. Kelley
  • C. Kilbourne
  • S. Porter
  • E. Troja
  • N. White
  • M. Barbera
  • G. Cusumano
  • T. Mineo
  • E. Perinati
  • S. Sciortino
  • X. Barcons
  • M. Ceballos
  • S. Basa
  • S. Basso
  • S. Campana
  • P. Conconi
  • G. Ghirlanda
  • G. Ghisellini
  • D. Spiga
  • M. Boer
  • E. Branchini
  • E. Ursino
  • G. Branduardi-Raymont
  • R. Cole
  • M. De Pasquale
  • I. Hepburn
  • R. Mignani
  • M. Page
  • S. Zane
  • S. Borgani
  • M. Girardi
  • M. Viel
  • A. Boyarsky
  • G. Brunetti
  • C. Budtz-Jorgensen
  • F. Christensen
  • A. Hornstrup
  • I. Kuvvetli
  • D. Burrows
  • N. Butler
  • E. Churazov
  • M. Gilfanov
  • R. Sunyaev
  • A. Comastri
  • S. Ettori
  • L. Moscardini
  • R. Content
  • R. Sharples
  • R. Doriese
  • K. Irwin
  • J. Ullom
  • P. Evans
  • P. O'Brien
  • J. Osborne
  • N. Tanvir
  • R. Willingale
  • L. Ferrari
  • F. Gatti
  • H. Finger
  • T. Figueroa-Feliciano
  • P. Friedrich
  • P. Predehl
  • S. Savaglio
  • R. Fujimoto
  • A. Hoshino
  • A. Furuzawa
  • Y. Tawara
  • M. Galeazzi
  • P. Giommi
  • J. Grindlay
  • O. Godet
  • E. Pointecouteau
  • M. Guedel
  • F. Haardt
  • R. Salvaterra
  • H. Hoekstra
  • H. Röttgering
  • J. Schaye
  • F. van de Voort
  • A. Holland
  • T. Kitayama
  • N. Kawai
  • A. Kusenko
  • R. Maiolino
  • F. Nicastro
  • M.M. Hesse
  • K. Matsushita
  • K. Sato
  • P. Mazzotta
  • D. McCammon
  • M. Méndez
  • K. Mitsuda
  • Y. Takei
  • T. Tamura
  • M. Tsujimoto
  • N. Yamasaki
  • R. Mushotzky
  • S. Molendi
  • E. Quadrini
  • F. Paerels
  • S. Paltani
  • A. Rasmussen
  • N. Werner
  • G. Rauw
  • M. Roncarelli
  • P. Rosati
  • O. Ruchayskiy
  • M. Shaposhnikov
  • K. Shinozaki
  • Y. Suto
  • M. Tashiro
  • T. Tsuru
  • F. Verbunt
  • S. Wachter
  • R. Wijers
  • K. Yoshikawa

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • MIAMI UNIVERSITY
  • Vienna University of Technology
  • HARVARD UNIVERSITY
  • OPEN UNIVERSITY
  • Leiden University
  • UNIVERSITY OF UTRECHT
  • Kyoto University
  • VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • CALTECH
  • UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
  • INAF Osservatorio Astronomico Brera
  • Durham University
  • NIST
  • University of Leicester
  • INAF-IASF Roma, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma, Italy
  • Copenhagen University
  • MIT
  • CEA Saclay
  • University of Geneva
  • CERN
  • Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University
  • UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON HOSPITALS
  • IFCA
  • Division of Natural/Applied Science, G.S.H.S., Ochanomizu University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan furukawa.hazuki@ocha.ac.jp
  • JAXA
  • University of Bologna
  • ESO
  • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES
  • TOKYO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
  • NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 USA
  • University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, USA
  • SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research
  • Tokyo Metropolitan University
  • Marshall Space Flight Center
  • Clemson University
  • LAT
  • Observatoire de Marseille
  • Observatoire de Haute Provence
  • Università Roma III
  • INAF-IRA
  • DNSC/Technical University of Denmark
  • Penn State University
  • Max-Planck-Insitut für Astrophysik
  • Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
  • University Space Research Association
  • Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik
  • Kanazawa University
  • Nagoya University
  • ASI Data Center
  • CESR Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements
  • University of Insubria
  • Toho University
  • INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma
  • Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA)
  • Universitá de Roma Tor Vergata
  • KIPAC/Stanford
  • Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
  • Saitama University
  • Tsukuba University

Abstract

ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10, and beyond. The mission will answer questions such as: When were the first metals created? How does the cosmic metal content evolve? Where do most of the metals reside in the Universe? What is the role of metals in structure formation and evolution? To reach out to the early Universe ORIGIN will use Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) to study their local environments in their host galaxies. This requires the capability to slew the satellite in less than a minute to the GRB location. By studying the chemical composition and properties of clusters of galaxies we can extend the range of exploration to lower redshifts (z ~0. 2). For this task we need a high-resolution spectral imaging instrument with a large field of view. Using the same instrument, we can also study the so far only partially detected baryons in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The less dense part of the WHIM will be studied using absorption lines at low redshift in the spectra for GRBs. The ORIGIN mission includes a Transient Event Detector (coded mask with a sensitivity of 0. 4 photon/cm /s in 10 s in the 5-150 keV band) to identify and localize 2000 GRBs over a five year mission, of which ~65 GRBs have a redshift >7. The Cryogenic Imaging Spectrometer, with a spectral resolution of 2. 5 eV, a field of view of 30 arcmin and large effective area below 1 keV has the sensitivity to study clusters up to a significant fraction of the virial radius and to map the denser parts of the WHIM (factor 30 higher than achievable with current instruments). The payload is complemented by a Burst InfraRed Telescope to enable onboard red-shift determination of GRBs (hence securing proper follow up of high-z bursts) and also probes the mildly ionized state of the gas. Fast repointing is achieved by a dedicated Controlled Momentum Gyro and a low background is achieved by the selected low Earth orbit. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Bibliographic note

Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)519-549
Number of pages31
JournalExperimental Astronomy
Volume34
Issue number2
Early online date13 May 2011
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2012