Optimisation of octinyl succinic anhydride starch stablised w1/o/w2 emulsions for oral destablisation of encapsulated salt and enhanced saltiness

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Natalie Chiu
  • Amparo Tarrega
  • Christopher Parmenter
  • Louise Hewson
  • Ian D. Fisk

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Nottingham
  • Institute of Agrochemisty and Food Science (IATA-CSIC) Avda
  • Nanoscale and Microscale Research Centre (nmRC), University of Nottingham


Sodium (salt) was encapsulated within the inner water phase of w1/o/w2 food emulsions externally stabilised by starch particles with the ultimate aim of enhancing saltiness perception. The physical properties of the starch particles were modified by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) treatment (0–3%) to vary the degree of hydrophobicity of the emulsifying starch. During oral processing native salivary amylase hydrolysed the starch and destabilised the o/w emulsion releasing the inner w/o phase and subsequently sodium into the oral cavity, resulting in a salty taste. Whilst increasing OSA treatment levels increased the stability of the emulsion, intermediate or low levels of starch modification resulted in enhanced saltiness. It is therefore proposed that 1.5% OSA modified starch is optimal for sodium delivery and 2% OSA modified starch is optimal for sodium delivery in systems that require greater process stability. It is also shown that sodium release was further enhanced by oral processing and was positively correlated with native amylase activity. The results demonstrate a promising new approach for the reduction of salt or sugar in emulsion based foods.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)450-458
Number of pages9
JournalFood Hydrocolloids
Early online date31 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2017


  • Control release, Emulsion, OSA starch, Salt reduction, Sodium encapsulation, Sodium perception