Occurrence of alternative flame retardants in indoor dust from New Zealand: Indoor sources and human exposure assessment

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • N. Ali
  • A.C. Dirtu
  • N.V.D. Eede
  • E. Goosey
  • H. Neels
  • A. 't Mannetje
  • J. Coakley
  • J. Douwes
  • A. Covaci


Due to worldwide restrictions on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), the demand for alternative flame retardants (AFRs), such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), novel brominated FRs (NBFRs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), has recently increased. Little is known about human exposure to NBFRs and OPFRs and that their levels in dust have been scarcely evaluated worldwide. To increase the knowledge regarding these chemicals, we measured concentrations of five major NBFRs, ten OPFRs and three HBCD isomers in indoor dust from New Zealand homes. Dust samples were taken from living room floors (n=34) and from mattresses of the same houses (n=16). Concentrations (ngg ) of NBFRs were: 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) (


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1276-1282
Number of pages7
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2012