Novel catalytically active Pd/Ru bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by Bacillus benzeovorans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Jaime Gomez-bolivar
  • Bayonle Kayode
  • Dipanjan Banerjee
  • Marc Walker
  • Mohamed L. Merroun

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Dutch-Belgian Beamline (DUBBLE), ESRF - The European Synchrotron
  • Warwick University


Bacillus benzeovorans assisted and supported growth of ruthenium (bio-Ru) and palladium/ruthenium (bio-Pd@Ru) core@shell nanoparticles (NPs) as bio-derived catalysts. Characterization of the bio-NPs using various electron microscopy techniques and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) analysis confirmed two NP populations (1–2 nm and 5–8 nm), with core@shells in the latter. The Pd/Ru NP lattice fringes, 0.231 nm, corresponded to the (110) plane of RuO2. While surface characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed the presence of Pd(0), Pd(II), Ru(III) and Ru(VI), X-ray absorption (XAS) studies of the bulk material confirmed the Pd speciation (Pd(0) and Pd(II)- corresponding to PdO), and identified Ru as Ru(III) and Ru(IV). The absence of Ru–Ru or Ru–Pd peaks indicated Ru only exists in oxide forms (RuO2 and RuOH), which are surface-localized. X ray diffraction (XRD) patterns did not identify Pd-Ru alloying. Preliminary catalytic studies explored the conversion of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) to the fuel precursor 2,5-dimethyl furan (2,5-DMF). Both high-loading (9.7 wt.% Pd, 6 wt.% Ru) and low-loading (2.4 wt.% Pd, 2 wt.% Ru) bio-derived catalysts demonstrated high conversion efficiencies (~95%) and selectivity of ~63% (~20% better than bio-Ru NPs) and 58%, respectively. These materials show promising future scope as efficient low-cost biofuel catalysts.


Original languageEnglish
Article number4715
Number of pages13
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 18 Mar 2019