Morphology, composition, and structure of carbon deposits from diesel and biomass oil/diesel blends on a pintle-type fuel injector nozzle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Hengzhou Wo
  • Ruhong Song
  • Enzhu Hu
  • Yufu Xu
  • Xianguo Hu

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Institute of Tribology, School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Hefei University of Technology
  • Hefei University of Technology


A biomass oil/diesel blend was prepared using an emulsion method and combusted in a diesel engine. An injector was then removed and the morphology, composition, and structure of the carbonaceous deposits on the pintle-type nozzle were characterized using a combination of HRTEM, SEM/EDAX, Raman and XRD. Results showed that the carbon deposition of the emulsified fuel with high crystallinity was greater than that of diesel. The agglomerated particulate diameters of the deposited carbon from diesel and emulsified fuel were approximately 10-30 μm and 50 μm, respectively. The carbon deposition mechanism from the emulsified fuel was attributed to the high oxygen content of the groups leading to increased polymerization and subsequent condensation on the nozzle surfaces that was then carbonised.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-196
Number of pages8
JournalTribology International
Early online date14 Jul 2015
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2015


  • Biomass-oil, Carbon deposit, Diesel, Nozzle