Morning vaccination enhances antibody response over afternoon vaccination: a cluster-randomised trial

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVES
Older adults are less able to produce a protective antibody response to vaccinations. One factor that contributes to this is immune ageing. Here we examined whether diurnal variations in immune responses might extend to the antibody response to vaccination.

DESIGN
We utilised a cluster-randomised trial design.

SETTING
24 General Practices (GPs) across the West Midlands, UK who were assigned to morning (9–11am; 15 surgeries) or afternoon (3–5pm; 9 surgeries) vaccination times for the annual UK influenza vaccination programme.

PARTICIPANTS
276 adults (aged 65+ years and without a current infection or immune disorder or taking immunosuppressant medication).

INTERVENTIONS
Participants were vaccinated in the morning or afternoon between 2011 and 2013.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
The primary outcome was the change in antibody titres to the three vaccine influenza strains from pre-vaccination to one month post-vaccination. Secondary outcomes of serum cytokines and steroid hormone concentrations were analysed at baseline to identify relationships with antibody responses.

RESULTS
The increase in antibody levels due to vaccination differed between morning and afternoon administration; mean difference (95% CI) for H1N1 A-strain, 293.3 (30.97–555.66) p=.03, B-strain, 15.89 (3.42–28.36) p=.01, but not H3N2 A-strain, 47.0 (−52.43 to 146.46) p=.35; those vaccinated in the morning had a greater antibody response. Cytokines and steroid hormones were not related to antibody responses. No adverse events were reported.

CONCLUSIONS
This simple manipulation in the timing of vaccine administration to favour morning vaccination may be beneficial for the influenza antibody response in older adults, with potential implications for vaccination strategies generally.

TRIAL REGISTRATION
This trial is registered with the ISRCTN (ISRCTN70898162).

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2679-2685
Number of pages7
JournalVaccine
Volume34
Issue number24
Early online date26 Apr 2016
Publication statusPublished - 23 May 2016

Keywords

  • Ageing, Antibodies, Cluster-randomised, Influenza vaccine, Time of day, Vaccination