Minimal/measurable residual disease in AML: consensus document from ELN MRD Working Party

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Gerrit J Schuurhuis
  • Michael Heuser
  • Marie-Christine Béné
  • Francesco Buccisano
  • Jacqueline Cloos
  • David Grimwade
  • Torsten Haferlach
  • Robert K Hills
  • Christopher S Hourigan
  • Jeffrey L Jorgensen
  • Wolfgang Kern
  • Francis Lacombe
  • Luca Maurillo
  • Claude Preudhomme
  • Bert A van der Reijden
  • Christian Thiede
  • Adriano Venditti
  • Paresh Vyas
  • Brent L Wood
  • Roland B Walter
  • Konstanze Döhner
  • Gail J Roboz
  • Gert J Ossenkoppele

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Department of Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands;
  • Department of Hematology, Hemostasis, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
  • Department of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
  • Hematology Biology, University Hospital Nantes, Nantes, France.
  • Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome, Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
  • Department of Pediatric Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
  • King's College London
  • Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany.
  • Cardiff University
  • Myeloid Malignancies Section, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.
  • Division Pathology/Lab Medicine, Department of Hematopathology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States.
  • Flow cytometry Platform, University Hospital, Bordeaux, France.
  • Center of Pathology, Laboratory of Hematology, University Hospital of Lille, Lille, France.
  • Department of Laboratory Medicine, Laboratory of Hematology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
  • Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Garus an der Technischen Universitaet Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
  • MRC Molecular Haematology Unit, Oxford Centre for Haematology, University of Oxford and Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
  • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, United States.
  • University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.
  • Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
  • Weill Cornell Medicine and The New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, United States.
  • Department of Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.


Measurable residual disease (MRD, previously termed minimal residual disease) is an independent, post-diagnosis, prognostic indicator in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that is important for risk stratification and treatment planning, in conjunction with other well-established clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular data assessed at diagnosis. MRD can be evaluated using a variety of multi-parameter flow cytometry (MFC) and molecular protocols but, to date, these approaches have not been qualitatively or quantitatively standardized, making their use in clinical practice challenging. The objective of this work was to identify key clinical and scientific issues in the measurement and application of MRD in AML, to achieve consensus on these issues, and to provide guidelines for the current and future use of MRD in clinical practice. The work was accomplished over two years, during four meetings by a specially designated MRD working party of the European LeukemiaNet (ELN). The group included 24 faculty with expertise in AML hematopathology, molecular diagnostics, clinical trials, and clinical medicine, from 19 institutions in Europe and the USA. The manuscript is dedicated to the memory of our esteemed colleague David Grimwade, a pioneer in the field of MRD in AML, and an active participant in the present work.


Original languageEnglish
Early online date12 Jan 2018
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 12 Jan 2018


  • Journal Article