Metallurgical modelling of Ti-6Al-4V for welding applications

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  • ESI Group


Manufacturing processes such as welding subject the α/β titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V to a wide range of temperatures and temperature rates, generating microstructure variations in the phases and in the precipitate dimensions. In this study, the metallurgical and numerical modelling of Ti-6Al-4V when subjected to a high energy density welding process was affected by a series of analytical equations coded in Sysweld commercial specialist FE welding software. Numerical predictions were compared with experimental results from laser welding tests on plates with different thicknesses, initial microstructural morphologies, and operating conditions. The evolution of the microstructure was described by using a diffusion-based approach when the material was operating in the α + β field, whilst empirical equations were used for temperatures above the β-transus temperature. Predictions made by the subroutines within the FE model were shown to match with reasonable trends when validated using experimental characterisation methods for various metallurgical features, including the α particle size, β grain size, martensitic needle thickness, and relative phase volume fractions.

Bibliographic note

Funding Information: Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support received from ESI-UK and ESI-Group in this work. Additional thanks are given to the technical support team from ESI-Group for their assistance with Sysweld, Visual Weld, and Visual Viewer software modelling. Many thanks are given to colleagues at the School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, for support with the microhardness kit, optical microscopy, and SEM facilities. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Original languageEnglish
Article number960
Number of pages20
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2021


  • Finite element, Microstructure, Ti-6Al-4V, Transformation, α phase, β phase