Marginal adaptation and micro-porosity of class II restorations of a high copper amalgam and a palladium-free gallium-based alloy

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The aim of the current investigation was to compare the marginal adaptation and internal porosity of a gallium (Ga)-based alloy (Galloy (R)) with a high copper amalgam (Permite C DP (R)) when used in moderately sized conventional class II cavities. Ten dentists placed two restorations of each material in standardized class II cavities in typodont teeth set in a phantom head. The proximal surfaces of the restored teeth were subsequently examined using an optical microscope and colour photographs were taken. The teeth were then serially sectioned before being re-examined microscopically and re-photographed. Three dentists rated the photographs of the restorations on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, for marginal adaptation and internal porosity using a six and five point scoring criteria, respectively. Inter- and intra-examiner agreements were assessed with weighted kappa statistics. The Ga-based alloy exhibited inferior marginal adaptation and a significantly higher level of porosity and internal defects compared with the dental amalgam. Marginal defects were mainly concentrated at the gingival third of the proximal boxes for both alloys. The poor marginal adaptation and extensive internal porosity detected for the Ga-based alloy was attributed to the difficulty in the alloy condensation related mainly to the 'stickiness' of the alloy to the condensers and to the rapid change in the plasticity of the alloy during condensation. This could possibly be a factor in the post-operative complications reported with the clinical use of this alloy.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)924 - 933
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Oral Rehabilitation
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2006


  • marginal adaptation, gallium-based alloy, dental amalgam, internal porosity