Manganese-enhanced MRI of the rat visual pathway: acute neural toxicity, contrast enhancement, axon resolution, axonal transport, and clearance of Mn(2+)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • M Thuen
  • Martin Berry
  • TB Pedersen
  • PE Goa
  • Michael Summerfield
  • And 3 others
  • O Haraldseth
  • A Sandvig
  • C Brekken

Colleges, School and Institutes


PURPOSE: To provide dose-response data for the safe and effective use of MnCl(2) for manganese (Mn(2+)) -enhanced MRI (MEMRI) of the visual pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) toxicity, CNR in MEMRI, axon density resolution for MEMRI, mode of axonal transport and clearance of Mn(2+) from the vitreous after ivit were investigated. After 0, 30, 150, 300, 1500, and 3000 nmol ivit MnCl(2), neural toxicity was measured by counting surviving RGC back-filled with FluroGold (FG), CNR of the vitreous body and visual pathway by three-dimensional (3D) MEMRI, resolution of ON axon density by correlating CNR with axon density, and axonal transport of Mn(2+) by studying CNR in 3D MEMRI of the ON after ion of 200 nmol MnCl(2). RESULTS: There were no changes in RGC density after ivit MnCl(2) 0 were recorded distally from the ion site, but there was no signal in the retina. At ivit doses >1500 nmol, clearance from the vitreous body was impaired. CONCLUSION: The optimal dose for MEMRI of the rat visual pathway was found to be 150-300 nmol ivit MnCl(2). Higher doses are toxic, causing RGC death, impair active clearance from the vitreous, and loss of Mn(2+) enhancement throughout the visual pathway. Mn(2+) traffic within RGC axons is mediated mainly by anterograde transport.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)855-865
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2008