Magnetic evaluation of microstructure changes in 9Cr-1Mo and 2.25Cr-1Mo steels using electromagnetic sensors

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  • University of Manchester


This paper presents results from a multi-frequency electromagnetic sensor used to evaluate the microstructural changes in 9Cr-1Mo and 2.25Cr-1Mo power generation steels after tempering and elevated temperature service exposure. Electromagnetic sensors detect microstructural changes in steels due to changes in the relative permeability and resistivity. It was found that the low frequency inductance value is particularly sensitive to the different relative permeability values of both steels in the different microstructural conditions. The changes in relative permeability have been quantitatively correlated with the microstructural changes due to tempering and long-term thermal exposure, in particular to changes in martensitic/bainitic lath size and number density of carbide precipitates that determine the mean free path to reversible domain wall motion. The role of these microstructural features on pinning of magnetic domain wall motion is discussed.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5897-5909
Number of pages13
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 14 Aug 2013