Long-term trends in PM2.5 mass and particle number concentrations in urban air: the impacts of mitigation measures and extreme events due to changing climates

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Long-term trends in PM2.5 mass and particle number concentrations in urban air : the impacts of mitigation measures and extreme events due to changing climates. / de Jesus, Alma Lorelei; Thompson, Helen; Knibbs, Luke D.; Kowalski, Michal; Cyrys, Josef; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Kousa, Anu ; Timonen, Hilkka; Luoma, Krista; Petaja, Tuukka; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Hopke, Philip K.; Morawska, Lidia.

In: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 263, No. Part A, 114500, 08.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

de Jesus, AL, Thompson, H, Knibbs, LD, Kowalski, M, Cyrys, J, Niemi, JV, Kousa, A, Timonen, H, Luoma, K, Petaja, T, Beddows, D, Harrison, R, Hopke, PK & Morawska, L 2020, 'Long-term trends in PM2.5 mass and particle number concentrations in urban air: the impacts of mitigation measures and extreme events due to changing climates', Environmental Pollution, vol. 263, no. Part A, 114500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114500

APA

de Jesus, A. L., Thompson, H., Knibbs, L. D., Kowalski, M., Cyrys, J., Niemi, J. V., Kousa, A., Timonen, H., Luoma, K., Petaja, T., Beddows, D., Harrison, R., Hopke, P. K., & Morawska, L. (2020). Long-term trends in PM2.5 mass and particle number concentrations in urban air: the impacts of mitigation measures and extreme events due to changing climates. Environmental Pollution, 263(Part A), [114500]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114500

Vancouver

Author

de Jesus, Alma Lorelei ; Thompson, Helen ; Knibbs, Luke D. ; Kowalski, Michal ; Cyrys, Josef ; Niemi, Jarkko V. ; Kousa, Anu ; Timonen, Hilkka ; Luoma, Krista ; Petaja, Tuukka ; Beddows, David ; Harrison, Roy ; Hopke, Philip K. ; Morawska, Lidia. / Long-term trends in PM2.5 mass and particle number concentrations in urban air : the impacts of mitigation measures and extreme events due to changing climates. In: Environmental Pollution. 2020 ; Vol. 263, No. Part A.

Bibtex

@article{28f985faf707467c978305b20411b896,
title = "Long-term trends in PM2.5 mass and particle number concentrations in urban air: the impacts of mitigation measures and extreme events due to changing climates",
abstract = "Urbanisation and industrialisation led to the increase of ambient particulate matter (PM) concentration. While subsequent regulations may have resulted in the decrease of some PM matrices, the simultaneous changes in climate affecting local meteorological conditions could also have played a role. To gain an insight into this complex matter, this study investigated the long-term trends of two important matrices, the particle mass (PM 2.5) and particle number concentrations (PNC), and the factors that influenced the trends. Mann-Kendall test, Sen's slope estimator, the generalised additive model, seasonal decomposition of time series by LOESS (locally estimated scatterplot smoothing) and the Buishand range test were applied. Both PM 2.5 and PNC showed significant negative monotonic trends (0.03–0.6 μg m −3. yr −1 and 0.40–3.8 × 10 3 particles. cm −3. yr −1, respectively) except Brisbane (+0.1 μg m −3. yr −1 and +53 particles. cm −3. yr −1, respectively). For the period covered in this study, temperature increased (0.03–0.07 °C.yr −1) in all cities except London; precipitation decreased (0.02–1.4 mm. yr −1) except in Helsinki; and wind speed was reduced in Brisbane and Rochester but increased in Helsinki, London and Augsburg. At the change-points, temperature increase in cold cities influenced PNC while shifts in precipitation and wind speed affected PM 2.5. Based on the LOESS trend, extreme events such as dust storms and wildfires resulting from changing climates caused a positive step-change in concentrations, particularly for PM 2.5. In contrast, among the mitigation measures, controlling sulphur in fuels caused a negative step-change, especially for PNC. Policies regarding traffic and fleet management (e.g. low emission zones) that were implemented only in certain areas or in a progressive uptake (e.g. Euro emission standards), resulted to gradual reductions in concentrations. Therefore, as this study has clearly shown that PM 2.5 and PNC were influenced differently by the impacts of the changing climate and by the mitigation measures, both metrics must be considered in urban air quality management. ",
keywords = "PM2.5, particle number concentration, ultrafine particles, mitigation, climate variabilities, Mitigation, Particle number concentration, Climate variabilities, Ultrafine particles, PM",
author = "{de Jesus}, {Alma Lorelei} and Helen Thompson and Knibbs, {Luke D.} and Michal Kowalski and Josef Cyrys and Niemi, {Jarkko V.} and Anu Kousa and Hilkka Timonen and Krista Luoma and Tuukka Petaja and David Beddows and Roy Harrison and Hopke, {Philip K.} and Lidia Morawska",
year = "2020",
month = aug,
doi = "10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114500",
language = "English",
volume = "263",
journal = "Environmental Pollution",
issn = "0269-7491",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "Part A",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Long-term trends in PM2.5 mass and particle number concentrations in urban air

T2 - the impacts of mitigation measures and extreme events due to changing climates

AU - de Jesus, Alma Lorelei

AU - Thompson, Helen

AU - Knibbs, Luke D.

AU - Kowalski, Michal

AU - Cyrys, Josef

AU - Niemi, Jarkko V.

AU - Kousa, Anu

AU - Timonen, Hilkka

AU - Luoma, Krista

AU - Petaja, Tuukka

AU - Beddows, David

AU - Harrison, Roy

AU - Hopke, Philip K.

AU - Morawska, Lidia

PY - 2020/8

Y1 - 2020/8

N2 - Urbanisation and industrialisation led to the increase of ambient particulate matter (PM) concentration. While subsequent regulations may have resulted in the decrease of some PM matrices, the simultaneous changes in climate affecting local meteorological conditions could also have played a role. To gain an insight into this complex matter, this study investigated the long-term trends of two important matrices, the particle mass (PM 2.5) and particle number concentrations (PNC), and the factors that influenced the trends. Mann-Kendall test, Sen's slope estimator, the generalised additive model, seasonal decomposition of time series by LOESS (locally estimated scatterplot smoothing) and the Buishand range test were applied. Both PM 2.5 and PNC showed significant negative monotonic trends (0.03–0.6 μg m −3. yr −1 and 0.40–3.8 × 10 3 particles. cm −3. yr −1, respectively) except Brisbane (+0.1 μg m −3. yr −1 and +53 particles. cm −3. yr −1, respectively). For the period covered in this study, temperature increased (0.03–0.07 °C.yr −1) in all cities except London; precipitation decreased (0.02–1.4 mm. yr −1) except in Helsinki; and wind speed was reduced in Brisbane and Rochester but increased in Helsinki, London and Augsburg. At the change-points, temperature increase in cold cities influenced PNC while shifts in precipitation and wind speed affected PM 2.5. Based on the LOESS trend, extreme events such as dust storms and wildfires resulting from changing climates caused a positive step-change in concentrations, particularly for PM 2.5. In contrast, among the mitigation measures, controlling sulphur in fuels caused a negative step-change, especially for PNC. Policies regarding traffic and fleet management (e.g. low emission zones) that were implemented only in certain areas or in a progressive uptake (e.g. Euro emission standards), resulted to gradual reductions in concentrations. Therefore, as this study has clearly shown that PM 2.5 and PNC were influenced differently by the impacts of the changing climate and by the mitigation measures, both metrics must be considered in urban air quality management.

AB - Urbanisation and industrialisation led to the increase of ambient particulate matter (PM) concentration. While subsequent regulations may have resulted in the decrease of some PM matrices, the simultaneous changes in climate affecting local meteorological conditions could also have played a role. To gain an insight into this complex matter, this study investigated the long-term trends of two important matrices, the particle mass (PM 2.5) and particle number concentrations (PNC), and the factors that influenced the trends. Mann-Kendall test, Sen's slope estimator, the generalised additive model, seasonal decomposition of time series by LOESS (locally estimated scatterplot smoothing) and the Buishand range test were applied. Both PM 2.5 and PNC showed significant negative monotonic trends (0.03–0.6 μg m −3. yr −1 and 0.40–3.8 × 10 3 particles. cm −3. yr −1, respectively) except Brisbane (+0.1 μg m −3. yr −1 and +53 particles. cm −3. yr −1, respectively). For the period covered in this study, temperature increased (0.03–0.07 °C.yr −1) in all cities except London; precipitation decreased (0.02–1.4 mm. yr −1) except in Helsinki; and wind speed was reduced in Brisbane and Rochester but increased in Helsinki, London and Augsburg. At the change-points, temperature increase in cold cities influenced PNC while shifts in precipitation and wind speed affected PM 2.5. Based on the LOESS trend, extreme events such as dust storms and wildfires resulting from changing climates caused a positive step-change in concentrations, particularly for PM 2.5. In contrast, among the mitigation measures, controlling sulphur in fuels caused a negative step-change, especially for PNC. Policies regarding traffic and fleet management (e.g. low emission zones) that were implemented only in certain areas or in a progressive uptake (e.g. Euro emission standards), resulted to gradual reductions in concentrations. Therefore, as this study has clearly shown that PM 2.5 and PNC were influenced differently by the impacts of the changing climate and by the mitigation measures, both metrics must be considered in urban air quality management.

KW - PM2.5

KW - particle number concentration

KW - ultrafine particles

KW - mitigation

KW - climate variabilities

KW - Mitigation

KW - Particle number concentration

KW - Climate variabilities

KW - Ultrafine particles

KW - PM

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85082708504&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114500

DO - 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114500

M3 - Article

VL - 263

JO - Environmental Pollution

JF - Environmental Pollution

SN - 0269-7491

IS - Part A

M1 - 114500

ER -