Loneliness in healthy young adults predicts inflammatory responsiveness to a mild immune challenge in vivo

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External organisations

  • University of Amsterdam


The established link between loneliness and poor health outcomes may stem from aberrant inflammatory regulation. The present study tested whether loneliness predicted the inflammatory response to a standardised in vivo immune challenge. Using a within-subjects double blind placebo-controlled design, 40 healthy men (mean age = 25, SD = 5) received a Salmonella Typhi vaccination (0.025 mg; Typhim Vi, Sanofi Pasteur, UK) and placebo (saline) on two separate occasions. Loneliness was assessed using the R-UCLA loneliness scale. Regression analyses showed that those that reported feeling more lonely exhibited an elevated interleukin-6 response (β = 0.564, 95% confidence interval [0.003, 0.042], p < .05). This association withstood adjustment for potentially confounding variables, including age, sleep quality, socio-emotional factors, and health factors. The present findings are in line with evidence that loneliness may shift immune system responsivity, suggesting a potential biobehavioural pathway linking loneliness to impaired health.

Bibliographic note

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Original languageEnglish
JournalBrain, Behavior, and Immunity
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2019


  • loneliness, mild inflammation, immune dysregulation, typhoid vaccination

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