Literacy attainment among children who are deaf or hard of hearing: The past, the present, and the future

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Oxford Brookes University


The chapter begins by looking back at the review of literacy outcomes among children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), published in 1996 by Marschark and Harris. In the light of developments in hearing aid technology and the age at which hearing loss is now identified, the chapter considers whether the picture described in the review has changed significantly in the two decades that have elapsed since its publication. It assesses evidence about levels of literacy attainment across the two decades and shows that, while spoken language has improved for many children, levels of literacy have not seen a commensurate improvement. The chapter also considers how views of the skills that predict success and failure in learning to read have evolved. It ends by considering how children who are DHH can be taught most effectively to read, and it speculates about future developments both in technology and in teaching.


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOxford Handbook of Deaf Studies in Literacy
EditorsSusan R Easterbrooks, Hannah M Dostal
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021


  • deafness, reading, spoken language, cochlear implants, hearing aids, intervention