Investigation on the Spray Characteristics of DMF- Isooctane Blends using PDPA

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • Tu Powen
  • Changzhao Jiang
  • Haichun Ding
  • Li Cao
  • Akbar Ghafourian
  • Shijin Shuai

Colleges, School and Institutes


Little research has been done on spray characteristics of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), since the breakthrough in its production method as an alternative fuel candidate. In this paper, the spray characteristics of pure fuels (DMF, Isooctane) and DMF-Isooctane blends under different ambient pressures (1 bar, 3 bar and 7 bar) and injection pressures (50 bar, 100 bar and 150 bar) were studied using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) and high speed imaging. Droplet velocity, size distribution, spray angle and penetration of sprays were examined. Based on the results, DMF had larger SMD and penetration length than isooctane. The surface tension of fuel strongly influenced spray characteristics. Increasing the surface tension by 26 % resulted in 12 % increase in SMD. Higher ambient pressure increased the drag force, but SMD was not influenced by the increased drag force. However, the increased ambient pressure reduced the injection velocity and We number resulting in higher SMD. High turbulence level from increased injection pressure decreased the SMD of D15 by 20 and 35% when injection pressure was increased to 50 and 150 bar respectively. Higher injection pressures increased the spray angle, when the injection pressure was increased from 50 to 150 bar the spray angle increased from 51.7 degree to 62.9 degree a 21% increase. Also, it was found that the increased ambient pressure did not affect the spray angle. The results presented in this paper can be a valuable source for researchers conducting modeling and numerical simulations.


Original languageEnglish
Article number2014-01-1408
JournalSAE Technical Papers
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2014
EventSAE 2014 World Congress and Exhibition - Detroit, MI, United States
Duration: 8 Apr 201410 Apr 2014