Investigation of changes in formulation and processing parameters on the physical properties of cocoa butter emulsions

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Colleges, School and Institutes


The aim of this work was to understand the physical characteristics of cocoa butter water in oil emulsions made using a process typically used for margarine production (a scraped surface heat exchanger and pin stirrer). Processing parameters were manipulated, and the effect of aqueous phase volume, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) concentration, and the addition of a hydrocolloid to the aqueous phase were investigated. This process allowed small droplets to be formed (3-5 μm). Tempering could also be mimicked, with the temperature of the units affecting the polymorphic form of cocoa butter produced. Sintered crystalline shells were observed at the oil/water droplet interface, acting as Pickering particles. This work highlights the potential for the use of cocoa butter emulsions to give fat reduction in chocolate, using a one step process to achieve emulsification and to mimic tempering.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-336
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Food Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012


  • Cocoa butter, Emulsion, Microstructure, Pickering

ASJC Scopus subject areas