Investigating sex differences in emotion recognition, learning, and regulation among youths with conduct disorder
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review
- RWTH Aachen University
- University Hospital RWTH Aachen
- Senckenberg Institute of Pathology
- University of Basel
- Amsterdam University Medical Centre
- Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T1R8, Canada.
- University of Southampton
- Birmingham City University
- University of Birmingham
- Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit, University Hospital Mutua Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain.
- Psychiatric Service, Basurto University Hospital, Bilbao, Spain.
- University of Szeged
- National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
- Boys Town National Research Hospital
- University of Bath
Objective: Conduct disorder (CD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder marked by notably higher prevalence rates for boys than girls. Converging evidence suggests that CD is associated with impairments in emotion recognition, learning, and regulation. However, it is not known whether there are sex differences in the relationship between CD and emotion dysfunction. Prior studies on emotion functioning in CD have so far been underpowered for investigating sex differences. Therefore, our primary aim was to characterize emotion processing skills in a large sample of girls and boys with CD compared to typically developing controls (TDCs) using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Method: We included 542 youths with CD (317 girls) and 710 TDCs (479 girls), 9 to 18 years of age, from a European multisite study (FemNAT-CD). Participants completed three experimental tasks assessing emotion recognition, learning, and regulation, respectively. Data were analyzed to test for effects of group and sex, and group-by-sex interactions, while controlling for potentially confounding factors. Results: Relative to TDCs, youths with CD showed impaired emotion recognition (that was related to more physical and proactive aggression, and higher CU traits), emotional learning (specifically from punishment), and emotion regulation. Boys and girls with CD, however, displayed similar impairments in emotion processing. Conclusion: This study provides compelling evidence for a relationship between CD and deficient neurocognitive functioning across three emotional domains that have previously been linked to CD etiology. However, there was no support for sex-specific profiles of emotion dysfunction, suggesting that current neurocognitive models of CD apply equally to both sexes.
|Journal||Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry|
|Early online date||23 Apr 2019|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 23 Apr 2019|