Investigating MALDI MSI parameters (Part 1) - A systematic survey of the effects of repetition rates up to 20kHz in continuous raster mode

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • Rory T Steven
  • Alexander Dexter
  • Josephine Bunch

Colleges, School and Institutes


Recent developments in laser performance, combined with the desire for increases in detected ion intensity and throughput, have led to the adoption of high repetition-rate diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) lasers in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Previous studies have demonstrated a more complex relationship between detected ion intensity, stage raster speed and laser pulse repetition rate than the simple linear relationship between number of pulses and detected ion intensity that might be expected. Here we report, for the first time, the interrelated influence of varying laser energy, repetition rate and stage raster speed on detected ion intensity. Thin films of PC 34:1 lipid standard and murine brain tissue with CHCA are analysed by continuous stage raster MALDI MSI. Contrary to previous reports, the optimum laser repetition rate is found to be dependent on both laser energy and stage raster speed and is found to be as high as 20kHz under some conditions. The effects of different repetition rates and raster speeds are also found to vary for different ion species within MALDI MSI of tissue and so may be significant when either targeting specific molecules or seeking to minimize bias. A clear dependence on time between laser pulses is also observed indicating the underlying mechanisms may be related to on-plate hysteresis-exhibiting processes such as matrix chemical modification.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-10
Number of pages10
Early online date11 Apr 2016
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2016