Intra-specific variation of wheat grain quality in response to elevated [CO2] at two sowing times under rain-fed and irrigation treatments

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Nimesha Fernando
  • Joe Panozzo
  • Robert M. Norton
  • Glenn J. Fitzgerald
  • Samuel Myers
  • Marc E. Nicolas
  • Saman Seneweera

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Melbourne
  • Department of Environment and Primary Industries
  • International Plant Nutrition Institute
  • Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School


In order to investigate the intra-specific variation of wheat grain quality response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (e[CO2]), eight wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)cultivars were grown at two CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) (current atmospheric, 389 CO2 μmolmol-1 vs. e[CO2], FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment), 550±10% CO2 μmolmol-1), at two water levels (rain-fed vs. irrigated) and at two times of sowing (TOS1, vs. TOS2). The TOS treatment was mainly imposed to understand whether e[CO2] could modify the effects of timing of higher grain filling temperatures on grain quality. When plants were grown at TOS1, TKW (thousand kernel weight), grain test weight, hardness index, P, Ca, Na and phytate were not significantly changed under e[CO2]. On the other hand, e[CO2] increased TKW (16%), hardness index (9%), kernel diameter (6%), test weight (2%) but decreased grain protein (10%) and grain phytate (11%) at TOS2. In regard to grain Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations and some flour rheological properties, cultivar specific responses to e[CO2] were observed at both sowing times. Observed genetic variability in response to e[CO2] in terms of grain minerals and flour rheological properties could be easily incorporated into future wheat breeding programs to enable adaptation to climate change.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-144
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Cereal Science
Issue number2
Early online date8 Jan 2014
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014


  • Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE), Grain quality, Intra-specific variation, Wheat

ASJC Scopus subject areas