Inter-annual variability in the effects of riparian woodland on micro-climate, energy exchanges and water temperature of an upland Scottish stream

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@article{b6255b5ff4a94b37b0c0f35ae16d5d0d,
title = "Inter-annual variability in the effects of riparian woodland on micro-climate, energy exchanges and water temperature of an upland Scottish stream",
abstract = "The influence of riparian woodland on stream temperature, microclimate and energy exchange was investigated over seven calendar years. Continuous data were collected from two reaches of the Girnock Burn (a tributary of the Aberdeenshire Dee, Scotland) with contrasting landuse characteristics: (1) semi-natural riparian forest and (2) open moorland. In the moorland reach, wind speed and energy fluxes (especially net radiation, latent heat and sensible heat) varied considerably between years as a consequence of variable riparian microclimate coupled strongly to prevailing meteorological conditions. In the forested reach, riparian vegetation sheltered the stream from meteorological conditions which produced a moderated microclimate and thus energy exchange conditions which were relatively stable between years. Net energy gains (losses) in spring and summer (autumn and winter) were typically greater in the moorland than the forest. However, when particularly high latent heat loss or low net radiation gain occurred in the moorland, net energy gain (loss) was less than that in the forest during the spring and summer (autumn and winter) months. Spring and summer water temperature was typically cooler in the forest, and characterised by less inter-annual variability due to reduced, more inter-annually stable energy gain in the forested reach. The effect of riparian vegetation on autumn and winter water temperature dynamics was less clear due to the confounding effects of reach-scale inflows of thermally stable groundwater in the moorland reach, which strongly influenced the local heat budget. These findings provide new insights as to the hydrometeorological conditions under which semi-natural riparian forest may be effective in mitigating river thermal variability, notably peaks, under present and future climates. ",
keywords = "stream/ river temperature, inter-annual variability, riparian forest, stream energy budget, hydrometeorology, climate change mitigation",
author = "Grace Garner and Malcolm, {Iain A.} and Sadler, {Jonathan P.} and Millar, {Colin P.} and Hannah, {David M.}",
year = "2015",
month = mar
day = "15",
doi = "10.1002/hyp.10223",
language = "English",
volume = "29",
pages = "1080--1095",
journal = "Hydrological Processes",
issn = "0885-6087",
publisher = "Wiley",
number = "6",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Inter-annual variability in the effects of riparian woodland on micro-climate, energy exchanges and water temperature of an upland Scottish stream

AU - Garner, Grace

AU - Malcolm, Iain A.

AU - Sadler, Jonathan P.

AU - Millar, Colin P.

AU - Hannah, David M.

PY - 2015/3/15

Y1 - 2015/3/15

N2 - The influence of riparian woodland on stream temperature, microclimate and energy exchange was investigated over seven calendar years. Continuous data were collected from two reaches of the Girnock Burn (a tributary of the Aberdeenshire Dee, Scotland) with contrasting landuse characteristics: (1) semi-natural riparian forest and (2) open moorland. In the moorland reach, wind speed and energy fluxes (especially net radiation, latent heat and sensible heat) varied considerably between years as a consequence of variable riparian microclimate coupled strongly to prevailing meteorological conditions. In the forested reach, riparian vegetation sheltered the stream from meteorological conditions which produced a moderated microclimate and thus energy exchange conditions which were relatively stable between years. Net energy gains (losses) in spring and summer (autumn and winter) were typically greater in the moorland than the forest. However, when particularly high latent heat loss or low net radiation gain occurred in the moorland, net energy gain (loss) was less than that in the forest during the spring and summer (autumn and winter) months. Spring and summer water temperature was typically cooler in the forest, and characterised by less inter-annual variability due to reduced, more inter-annually stable energy gain in the forested reach. The effect of riparian vegetation on autumn and winter water temperature dynamics was less clear due to the confounding effects of reach-scale inflows of thermally stable groundwater in the moorland reach, which strongly influenced the local heat budget. These findings provide new insights as to the hydrometeorological conditions under which semi-natural riparian forest may be effective in mitigating river thermal variability, notably peaks, under present and future climates.

AB - The influence of riparian woodland on stream temperature, microclimate and energy exchange was investigated over seven calendar years. Continuous data were collected from two reaches of the Girnock Burn (a tributary of the Aberdeenshire Dee, Scotland) with contrasting landuse characteristics: (1) semi-natural riparian forest and (2) open moorland. In the moorland reach, wind speed and energy fluxes (especially net radiation, latent heat and sensible heat) varied considerably between years as a consequence of variable riparian microclimate coupled strongly to prevailing meteorological conditions. In the forested reach, riparian vegetation sheltered the stream from meteorological conditions which produced a moderated microclimate and thus energy exchange conditions which were relatively stable between years. Net energy gains (losses) in spring and summer (autumn and winter) were typically greater in the moorland than the forest. However, when particularly high latent heat loss or low net radiation gain occurred in the moorland, net energy gain (loss) was less than that in the forest during the spring and summer (autumn and winter) months. Spring and summer water temperature was typically cooler in the forest, and characterised by less inter-annual variability due to reduced, more inter-annually stable energy gain in the forested reach. The effect of riparian vegetation on autumn and winter water temperature dynamics was less clear due to the confounding effects of reach-scale inflows of thermally stable groundwater in the moorland reach, which strongly influenced the local heat budget. These findings provide new insights as to the hydrometeorological conditions under which semi-natural riparian forest may be effective in mitigating river thermal variability, notably peaks, under present and future climates.

KW - stream/ river temperature

KW - inter-annual variability

KW - riparian forest

KW - stream energy budget

KW - hydrometeorology

KW - climate change mitigation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84923839062&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/hyp.10223

DO - 10.1002/hyp.10223

M3 - Article

VL - 29

SP - 1080

EP - 1095

JO - Hydrological Processes

JF - Hydrological Processes

SN - 0885-6087

IS - 6

ER -