Insulin resistance and obesity, and their association with depression in relatively young people: findings from a large U.K. birth cohort

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Authors

  • Benjamin Ian Perry
  • Golam Khandaker
  • Stanley Zammit
  • Thompson Andrew
  • Swaran Singh

Abstract

BackgroundDepression frequently co-occurs with disorders of glucose and insulin homeostasis (DGIH) and obesity. Low-grade systemic inflammation and lifestyle factors in childhood may predispose to DGIH, obesity and depression. We aim to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among DGIH, obesity and depression, and to examine the effect of demographics, lifestyle factors and antecedent low-grade inflammation on such associations in young people.MethodsUsing the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort, we used regression analyses to examine: (1) cross-sectional and (2) longitudinal associations between measures of DGIH [insulin resistance (IR); impaired glucose tolerance] and body mass index (BMI) at ages 9 and 18 years, and depression (depressive symptoms and depressive episode) at age 18 years and (3) whether sociodemographics, lifestyle factors or inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6) at age 9 years] confounded any such associations.ResultsWe included 3208 participants. At age 18 years, IR and BMI were positively associated with depression. These associations may be explained by sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. There were no longitudinal associations between DGIH/BMI and depression, and adjustment for IL-6 and C-reactive protein did not attenuate associations between IR/BMI and depression; however, the longitudinal analyses may have been underpowered.ConclusionsYoung people with depression show evidence of DGIH and raised BMI, which may be related to sociodemographic and lifestyle effects such as deprivation, smoking, ethnicity and gender. In future, studies with larger samples are required to confirm this. Preventative strategies for the poorer physical health outcomes associated with depression should focus on malleable lifestyle factors.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
JournalPsychological Medicine
Early online date11 Mar 2019
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 Mar 2019

Keywords

  • ALSPAC, depression, inflammation, insulin resistance, obesity, overweight