Infographic. Doping without drugs: how para-athletes may self-harm to boost performance

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Infographic. Doping without drugs : how para-athletes may self-harm to boost performance. / Gee, Cam; Nightingale, Tom E.; West, Christopher; Krassioukov, Andrei.

In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, 07.05.2020.

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@article{dedbd81121d24a39920268e23e00cd21,
title = "Infographic. Doping without drugs: how para-athletes may self-harm to boost performance",
abstract = "This infographic provides a summary of the use of boosting by athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI); its causes, warning signs and dangers, and the current approach of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) to testing. Boosting is the intentional induction of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) to enhance performance. AD is a potentially life-threatening condition experienced by many individuals with a SCI, typically at or above the T6 spinal level. It is characterised by a sudden increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) >20 mm Hg above baseline due to a noxious or non-noxious stimuli below the level of injury, that excites sympathetic preganglionic neurons resulting in vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the lower extremities and trunk.1 Triggers include, but are not limited to, bladder distension, injury or an innocuous stimulus (eg, a tight shoelace or belt) below the level of injury. Without prompt resolution, severe cases of AD may result in cerebral haemorrhage, myocardial ischaemia, seizures, arrhythmias or death.2 While prolonged hypertensive crises are rare in athletes, repetitive asymptomatic AD events present a substantial long-term health consequence and may partially explain the heighted cardiovascular mortality risk in individuals with SCI.",
keywords = "cardiovascular, disability, doping, elite performance, exercise physiology",
author = "Cam Gee and Nightingale, {Tom E.} and Christopher West and Andrei Krassioukov",
year = "2020",
month = may,
day = "7",
doi = "10.1136/bjsports-2020-101980",
language = "English",
journal = "British Journal of Sports Medicine",
issn = "0306-3674",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Infographic. Doping without drugs

T2 - how para-athletes may self-harm to boost performance

AU - Gee, Cam

AU - Nightingale, Tom E.

AU - West, Christopher

AU - Krassioukov, Andrei

PY - 2020/5/7

Y1 - 2020/5/7

N2 - This infographic provides a summary of the use of boosting by athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI); its causes, warning signs and dangers, and the current approach of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) to testing. Boosting is the intentional induction of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) to enhance performance. AD is a potentially life-threatening condition experienced by many individuals with a SCI, typically at or above the T6 spinal level. It is characterised by a sudden increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) >20 mm Hg above baseline due to a noxious or non-noxious stimuli below the level of injury, that excites sympathetic preganglionic neurons resulting in vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the lower extremities and trunk.1 Triggers include, but are not limited to, bladder distension, injury or an innocuous stimulus (eg, a tight shoelace or belt) below the level of injury. Without prompt resolution, severe cases of AD may result in cerebral haemorrhage, myocardial ischaemia, seizures, arrhythmias or death.2 While prolonged hypertensive crises are rare in athletes, repetitive asymptomatic AD events present a substantial long-term health consequence and may partially explain the heighted cardiovascular mortality risk in individuals with SCI.

AB - This infographic provides a summary of the use of boosting by athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI); its causes, warning signs and dangers, and the current approach of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) to testing. Boosting is the intentional induction of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) to enhance performance. AD is a potentially life-threatening condition experienced by many individuals with a SCI, typically at or above the T6 spinal level. It is characterised by a sudden increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) >20 mm Hg above baseline due to a noxious or non-noxious stimuli below the level of injury, that excites sympathetic preganglionic neurons resulting in vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the lower extremities and trunk.1 Triggers include, but are not limited to, bladder distension, injury or an innocuous stimulus (eg, a tight shoelace or belt) below the level of injury. Without prompt resolution, severe cases of AD may result in cerebral haemorrhage, myocardial ischaemia, seizures, arrhythmias or death.2 While prolonged hypertensive crises are rare in athletes, repetitive asymptomatic AD events present a substantial long-term health consequence and may partially explain the heighted cardiovascular mortality risk in individuals with SCI.

KW - cardiovascular

KW - disability

KW - doping

KW - elite performance

KW - exercise physiology

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85085050643&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1136/bjsports-2020-101980

DO - 10.1136/bjsports-2020-101980

M3 - Article

JO - British Journal of Sports Medicine

JF - British Journal of Sports Medicine

SN - 0306-3674

ER -